To analyze the genetic alterations of pheochromocytomas and evaluate the difference among malignant, extra-adrenal, and benign pheochromocytomas. Forty-three tumor samples were tested for genetic changes using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among them, 39 samples were available for protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All 43 patients (24 women and 19 men; mean age 44.6±13.6 years; range 18–75 years; 9 with malignant, 7 extra-adrenal, and 27 benign) showed multiple copy number losses or gains. The average copy number change was 13.10 in malignant, 13.93 in benign, and 13.47 in paraganglioma patients. There is no significant difference among the three groups of pheochromocytomas. However, we discovered that in the malignant pheochromocytomas, 6 of the 9 patients (67%) showed erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB-2) oncogene gain, whereas only 12 of the 34 (35%) identified change in the benign and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. Further, IHC confirmed that ERBB-2-positive staining was more frequent and stronger in malignant pheochromocytomas than in benign and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. Our study illustrates the chromosomal changes of the whole genome of Chinese pheochromocytoma patients. The results suggest that there may be certain progression of genetic events that involves chromosomes 1p, 3p, 6p, 11q, 12q, 17q, and 19q in the development of pheochromocytomas, and the activation of ERBB-2 located on chromosome 17q is an important and early event in the malignancy development of these tumor types. The overexpression of ERBB-2 identified by IHC suggested that this oncogene could be associated with the malignancy of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
WenQi Yuan, WeiQinq Wang, Bin Cui, TingWei Su, Yan Ge, Lei Jiang, WeiWei Zhou, and Guang Ning
Yuling Mao, Liuqing Zhu, Zhijian Huang, Chuanghua Luo, Ti Zhou, Lei Li, Guannan Wang, Zhonghan Yang, Weiwei Qi, Xia Yang, and Guoquan Gao
Sorafenib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic activity, has been used in liver cancer and kidney cancer treatments. However, clinical trials with sorafenib for breast cancer were stopped in phase III due to limited efficacy. The existence of heterogeneous vasculatures involving tumor cells, such as vessel-like structures formed by vasculogenic mimicry and mosaic vessels, and their resistance to antiangiogenic therapy are thought to be a possible reason for failure of sorafenib therapy. Nevertheless, the features and mechanism of vasculogenesis by tumor cells remain unclear. In the present study, we found that breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSLCs, ALDH1+ cells) were involved in vasculogenic mimicry and mosaic vessel formation in triple-negative breast cancer tissues. Further, only ALDH1+ BCSLCs sorted from MDA-MB-231 could exhibit the tube formation and angiogenesis ability. Sorafenib could inhibit vascularization from endothelial cells rather than that from ALDH1+ cells. α-SMA was identified as a key molecule in vascular formation of BCSLCs. Mechanistically, HIF-1α enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA by binding to the HRE element in the promoter directly and meanwhile increased the BCSLCs population. Interestingly, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, could inhibit both endothelial cell-derived and tumor cell-derived angiogenesis by downregulating HIF-1α in breast cancer. Our finding clarified the possible reason for the poor outcome of anti-angiogenesis therapy and PEDF may have the therapeutic potential.