Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas (sPGLs) are catecholamine-producing tumors occurring in the context of hereditary tumor syndromes, with known germline mutations, and as sporadic tumors. The pathogenesis of sporadic PCC and sPGL is poorly understood, and little is known about intra-tumoral heterogeneity with respect to molecular aberrations. Since knowledge on intra-tumoral heterogeneity is important for understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors, we investigated 12 benign and 8 malignant PCCs and sPGLs for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on DNA extracted from different regions of each tumor and from metastases. LOH markers were selected on chromosomal regions frequently deleted in PCC, including 1p, 3q, 3p, and 11p. Benign tumors were found to have less intra-tumoral heterogeneity (overall 8%) than malignant tumors (overall 23%), with the highest frequencies for chromosome 1p36 in the benign tumors (17%) and 1p13 and 3q24 in malignant tumors (both 38%). In addition, differences in LOH patterns were detected between paired primary malignant tumors, and their metastases and different LOH patterns were observed in bilateral PCC of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 patient. We demonstrate that malignant PCC and sPGL have more intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity than benign tumors, which suggests that benign and malignant PCC and sPGL have a different pathogenesis.
Esther Korpershoek, Claudia K Stobbe, Francien H van Nederveen, Ronald R de Krijger, and Winand N M Dinjens
Francien H van Nederveen, Esther Korpershoek, Ronald J deLeeuw, Albert A Verhofstad, Jacques W Lenders, Winand N M Dinjens, Wan L Lam, and Ronald R de Krijger
Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from the adrenal medulla that occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1, and the PCC-paraganglioma syndrome. Conventional comparative genomic hybridization studies have shown loss of 1p and 3q in the majority of sporadic and MEN2-related PCC, and 3p and 11p loss in VHL-related PCC. The development of a submegabase tiling resolution array enabled us to perform a genome-wide high-resolution analysis of 36 sporadic benign PCC. The results show that there are two distinct patterns of abnormalities in these sporadic PCC, one consisting of loss of 1p with or without concomitant 3q loss in 20/36 cases (56%), the other characterized by loss of 3p with or without concomitant 11p loss in 11/36 (31%). In addition, we found loss of chromosome 22q at high frequency (35%), as well as the novel finding of high frequency chromosome 21q loss (21%). We conclude that there appear to be two subgroups of benign sporadic PCC, one of which has a pattern of chromosomal abnormalities that is comparable with PCC from patients with MEN2 and the other that is comparable with the PCC that arise in patients with VHL disease. In addition, genes on 21q and 22q might play a more important role in PCC pathogenesis than had been assumed thus far.
Esther Korpershoek, Nanne K Kloosterhof, Angelique Ziel-van der Made, Hanneke Korsten, Lindsey Oudijk, Jan Trapman, Winand N M Dinjens, and Ronald R de Krijger
Phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) are benign neuroendocrine tumours of the adrenal medulla. Approximately 10% of PCC patients develop metastases, but this frequency is much higher in specific subtypes of patients. The reliable diagnosis of malignant PCC can only be made after identification of a metastasis. To study the effect of Trp53 inactivation on PCC pathogenesis in Pten KO mice, we investigated the adrenals of a large cohort of mice with conditional monoallelic and biallelic inactivation of Trp53 and Pten. The adrenal weights were determined for all mice, and in a proportion of these mice, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase was performed on the adrenals and corresponding lungs. Finally, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed. The histological and immunohistochemical results confirmed that the adrenal tumours were PCCs. Inactivation of one or both alleles of Trp53 resulted in earlier tumour occurrence in the Pten loxP/loxP mice as well as in the Pten loxP/+ mice. In addition, lung metastases were found in up to 67% of mice. The CGH results showed that the most frequent genomic alterations were loss of chromosome 19 (86%) and gain of chromosome 15 (71%). In this study, we have shown that Pten/Trp53 KO mice showed metastatic PCC at high frequency and primary tumours occurred at younger ages in mice with Trp53 inactivation. Therefore, the present model appears to be a suitable model that might allow the preclinical study of new therapeutics for these tumours.
Marie Colombe Agahozo, Anieta M Sieuwerts, S Charlane Doebar, Esther I Verhoef, Corine M Beaufort, Kirsten Ruigrok-Ritstier, Vanja de Weerd, Hein F B M Sleddens, Winand N M Dinjens, John W M Martens, and Carolien H M van Deurzen
PIK3CA is one of the most frequently mutated genes in invasive breast cancer (IBC). These mutations are generally associated with hyper-activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, which involves increased phosphorylation of AKT (p-AKT). This pathway is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor PTEN. Data are limited regarding the variant allele frequency (VAF) of PIK3CA, PTEN and p-AKT expression during various stages of breast carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain insight into PIK3CA VAF and associated PTEN and p-AKT expression during the progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to IBC. We isolated DNA from DCIS tissue, synchronous IBC and metastasis when present. These samples were pre-screened for PIK3CA hotspot mutations using the SNaPshot assay and, if positive, validated and quantified by digital PCR. PTEN and p-AKT expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using the Histo-score (H-score). Differences in PIK3CA VAF, PTEN and p-AKT H-scores between DCIS and IBC were analyzed. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 17 out of 73 DCIS samples, 16 out of 73 IBC samples and 3 out of 23 lymph node metastasis. We detected a significantly higher VAF of PIK3CA in the DCIS component compared to the adjacent IBC component (P = 0.007). The expression of PTEN was significantly higher in DCIS compared to the IBC component in cases with a wild-type (WT) PIK3CA status (P = 0.007), while it remained similar in both components when PIK3CA was mutated. There was no difference in p-AKT expression between DCIS and the IBC component. In conclusion, our data suggest that PIK3CA mutations could be essential specifically in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. In addition, these mutations do not co-occur with PTEN expression during DCIS progression to IBC in the majority of patients. These results may contribute to further unraveling the process of breast carcinogenesis, and this could aid in the development of patient-specific treatment.
Esther Korpershoek, Bart-Jeroen Petri, Francien H van Nederveen, Winand N M Dinjens, Albert A Verhofstad, Wouter W de Herder, Sonja Schmid, Aurel Perren, Paul Komminoth, and Ronald R de Krijger
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare tumors that arise from chromaffin tissue in the adrenal medulla, but can also occur in the abdomen outside the adrenals and are then called sympathetic paragangliomas (sPGLs). According to the literature, between 15 and 25% of apparently sporadic adrenal PCC and sPGL are caused by germline mutations in RET, von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL), succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), or subunit D SDHD. However, few studies have addressed the mutationfrequency of these candidate genes in selected subgroups of PCC andsPGL, such as bilateral adrenal PCC or extra-adrenal sPGL, and none have looked at somatic mutations by analyzing tumor tissue. Therefore, we have investigated the occurrence of germline and somatic mutations in RET, VHL, SDHB, and SDHD in comparatively large series of bilateral adrenal PCC (n = 33 patients) and sPGL (n = 26 patients), with the aim of determining the mutation frequency of each of these genes and to establish a genetic testing algorithm. Twenty-one RET, two VHL germline, and one SDHD mutations were found in the patients with bilateral adrenal PCC. In sPGL, one novel SDHB germline and one novel SDHB somatic mutation were observed. In addition, two SDHD germline mutations were found. We conclude that germline RET mutations are predominantly found in bilateral PCC, and that somatic and germline SDHB and SDHD mutations usually occur in sPGL, which has practical consequences for genetic testing algorithms. We suggest that sequential mutation analysis should be directed first at RET, followed by VHL and SDHD for patients with bilateral adrenal PCC at diagnosis, and at SDHB and SDHD for patients with sPGL.
Thomas G Papathomas, Lindsey Oudijk, Ellen C Zwarthoff, Edward Post, Floor A Duijkers, Max M van Noesel, Leo J Hofland, Patrick J Pollard, Eamonn R Maher, David F Restuccia, Richard A Feelders, Gaston J H Franssen, Henri J Timmers, Stefan Sleijfer, Wouter W de Herder, Ronald R de Krijger, Winand N M Dinjens, and Esther Korpershoek
Hotspot mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been recently reported in human cancers and proposed as a novel mechanism of telomerase activation. To explore TERT promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia, a set of 253 tumors (38 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), 127 pheochromocytomas (PCCs), 18 extra-adrenal paragangliomas (ea PGLs), 37 head and neck PGLs (HN PGLs), and 33 peripheral neuroblastic tumors) was selected along with 16 human neuroblastoma (NBL) and two ACC cell lines to assess TERT promoter mutations by the Sanger sequencing method. All mutations detected were confirmed by a SNaPshot assay. Additionally, 36 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were added to explore an association between TERT promoter mutations and SDH deficiency. TERT promoter mutations were found in seven out of 289 tumors and in three out of 18 human cell lines; four C228T mutations in 38 ACCs (10.5%), two C228T mutations in 18 ea PGLs (11.1%), one C250T mutation in 36 GISTs (2.8%), and three C228T mutations in 16 human NBL cell lines (18.75%). No mutation was detected in PCCs, HN PGLs, neuroblastic tumors as well as ACC cell lines. TERT promoter mutations preferentially occurred in a SDH-deficient setting (P=0.01) being present in three out of 47 (6.4%) SDH-deficient tumors vs zero out of 171 (0%) SDH-intact tumors. We conclude that TERT promoter mutations occur in ACCs and ea PGLs. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates a potential association with the acquisition of TERT promoter mutations in SDH-deficient tumors.