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Zhen-Xian Du, Ying Yan, Hai-Yan Zhang, Bao-Qin Liu, Yan-Yan Gao, Xiao-Fang Niu, Yifu Guan, Xin Meng, and Hua-Qin Wang

Proteasome inhibitors represent a novel class of antitumor agents with pre-clinical and clinical evidence of activity against hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. However, emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that the activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are a family of thiol-containing peroxidases identified primarily by their ability to remove cellular hydroperoxides. The function of PRDX1 in particular has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Another important finding is that aberrant upregulation of PRDX1 has been discovered in various cancers. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase that is regulated under conditions of cellular stress. ASK1 phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK, and elicits an apoptotic response. ASK1 activity is regulated at multiple levels, one of which is through interaction with PRDX1. In this study, for the first time we report that upregulation of PRDX1 expression was found in thyroid cancer cells treated with proteasome inhibitors, and PRDX1 knockdown resulted in accelerated proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death. In addition, we demonstrated that ASK1 activity was implicated in the PRDX1-dependent response of thyroid cancer cells to proteasome inhibitor-mediated cell death.

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Zhi-yuan Pang, Yun-tao Wei, Mu-yan Shang, Shuang Li, Yang Li, Quan-xiu Jin, Zhi-xuan Liao, Ming-ke Cui, Xiao-yan Liu, and Qiang Zhang

Aberrant leptin signaling and overexpression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) are both implicated in the pathogenesis of letrozole resistance in breast cancer (BCa), but it remains unknown whether these two pathways are involved in letrozole resistance in a coordinated manner. Here, we demonstrate that expression levels of the pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox transcription factor 3 (PBX3), a pioneer factor that governs divergent biological processes, were significantly upregulated in letrozole-resistant BCa cells and tissues, and this upregulation correlated to a poorer progression-free survival in patients. By leveraging a patient-derived xenograft model with pharmacological approaches, we demonstrated that leptin activated PBX3 expression in a STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)–dependent manner. Our loss- and gain-of-function study further showed that PBX3 attenuated response to letrozole by potentiating BCa cell survival and anchorage–independent growth in BCa cells. By profiling BCa cells with ectopic PBX3 expression, we revealed that PBX3 conferred letrozole resistance via transactivation of the FGFR1 signaling, and this molecular event must coordinate a synergistic transcription activation programs through interacting with MTA1-HDAC2 (metastasis associated 1-histone deacetylase 2) complex. Overall, the available data reveal a novel role of leptin/PBX3 cascade linking energy homeostasis (i.e. hyperleptinemia) and endocrine therapy failure (i.e. letrozole resistance) in BCa.

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Xiao-hui Luo, Jian-zhou Liu, Bo Wang, Qun-li Men, Yu-quan Ju, Feng-yan Yin, Chao Zheng, and Wei Li

Insights into the mechanisms by which key factors stimulate cell growth under androgen-depleted conditions is a premise to the development of effective treatments with clinically significant activity in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Herein, we report that, the expression of Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14), a master transcription factor in the regulation of lipid metabolism, was significantly induced in castration-insensitive PCa cells and tumor tissues from a mouse xenograft model of CRPC. KLF14 upregulation in PCa cells, which was stimulated upstream by oxidative stress, was dependent on multiple pathways including PI3K/AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, AMPK and PKC pathways. By means of ectopic overexpression and genetic inactivation, we further show that KLF14 promoted cell growth via positive regulation of the antioxidant response under androgen-depleted conditions. Mechanistically, KLF14 coupled to p300 and CBP to enhance the transcriptional activation of HMOX1, the gene encoding the antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) that is one of the most important mechanisms of cell adaptation to stress. Transient knockdown of HMOX1 is sufficient to overcome KLF14 overexpression-potentiated PCa cell growth under androgen-depleted conditions. From a pharmacological standpoint, in vivo administration of ZnPPIX (a specific inhibitor of HO-1) effectively attenuates castration-resistant progression in the mouse xenograft model, without changing KLF14 level. Together, these results provide comprehensive insight into the KLF14-dependent regulation of antioxidant response and subsequent pathogenesis of castration resistance and indicate that interventions targeting the KLF14/HO-1 adaptive mechanism should be further explored for CRPC treatment.

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Xiao-Hua Jiang, Jie-Li Lu, Bin Cui, Yong-Ju Zhao, Wei-qing Wang, Jian-Min Liu, Wen-Qiang Fang, Ya-Nan Cao, Yan Ge, Chang-xian Zhang, Huguette Casse, Xiao-Ying Li, and Guang Ning

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited tumour syndrome characterized by the development of tumours of the parathyroid, anterior pituitary and pancreatic islets, etc. Heterozygous germ line mutations of MEN1 gene are responsible for the onset of MEN1. We investigated the probands and 31 family members from eight unrelated Chinese families associated with MEN1 and identified four novel mutations, namely 373_374ins18, 822delT, 259delT and 1092delC, as well as three previously reported mutations, such as 357_360delCTGT, 427_428delTA and R108X (CGA>TGA) of MEN1 gene. Furthermore, we detected a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 11q in the removed tumours, including gastrinoma, insulinoma and parathyroid adenoma from two probands of MEN1 families. RT-PCR and direct sequencing showed that mutant MEN1 transcripts remained in the MEN1-associated endocrine tumours, whereas normal menin proteins could not be detected in those tumours by either immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting. In conclusion, MEN1 heterozygous mutations are associated with LOH and menin absence, which are present in MEN1-associated endocrine tumours.