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Xiang Zhang, Ya Hu, Ming Cui, Mengyi Wang, Xiaobin Li, Yalu Zhang, Sen Yang, Surong Hua, Meiping Shen, and Quan Liao

Tumour microenvironment has been recognized as a crucial factor influencing disease progression. However, relevant features and functions are insufficiently understood in parathyroid neoplasia. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed to profile the transcriptome of 27,251 cells from 4 parathyroid adenoma (PA) tissue samples. External transcriptomic datasets and immunofluorescence staining of a tissue microarray were set for expression validation. Eight major cell types and various subpopulations were finely identified in PA. We found that a subcluster of tumour endocrine cells with low copy number variation probably presented as a resting state. Diverse infiltrating immune cell subtypes were identified, constructing an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Tumour-associated macrophages, which indicated an anti-inflammatory phenotype, were significantly increased in PA. Inflammatory tumour-associated fibroblasts (iTAFs) were newly verified and highlighted on the role of stromal-immune crosstalk. Positive correlation between iTAFs and increased CD163+ macrophages was uncovered. Moreover, CXCL12 receptor signalling is important for tumour angiogenesis and immune infiltration. Our findings provide a comprehensive landscape interpreting tumour cell heterogeneity, cell diversity, and immune regulation in parathyroid neoplasia. The valuable resources may promote the understanding of parathyroid tumour microenvironment.

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Li Qin, Jianwei Chen, Dong Lu, Prashi Jain, Yang Yu, David Cardenas, Xiaohui Peng, Xiaobin Yu, Jianming Xu, Jin Wang, Bert W O’Malley, and David M Lonard

Steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) possess specific and distinct oncogenic roles in the initiation of cancer and in its progression to a more aggressive disease. These coactivators interact with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors to boost transcription of multiple genes, which potentiate cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Targeting SRCs using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) is a promising approach to control cancer progression and metastasis. By high-throughput screening analysis, we recently identified SI-2 as a potent SRC SMI. To develop therapeutic agents, SI-10 and SI-12, the SI-2 analogs are synthesized that incorporate the addition of F atoms to the SI-2 chemical structure. As a result, these analogs exhibit a significantly prolonged plasma half-life, minimal toxicity and improved hERG activity. Biological functional analysis showed that SI-10 and SI-12 treatment (5–50 nM) can significantly inhibit viability, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and repress the growth of breast cancer PDX organoids. Treatment of mice with 10 mg/kg/day of either SI-10 or SI-12 was sufficient to repress the growth of xenograft tumors derived from MDA-MB-231 and LM2 cells. Furthermore, in spontaneous and experimental metastasis mouse models developed from MDA-MB-231 and LM2 cells, respectively, SI-10 and SI-12 effectively inhibited the progression of breast cancer lung metastasis. These results demonstrate that SI-10 and SI-12 are promising therapeutic agents and are specifically effective in blocking tumor metastasis, a key point in tumor progression to a more lethal state that results in patient mortality in the majority of cases.