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Barbara Salani, Alberto Del Rio, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti, Renzo Cordera and Davide Maggi

( Alexander et al . 2008 ). In 2005, a 23% reduction in the incidence of any cancer in type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin was reported ( Evans et al . 2005 ). In recent years, results from retrospective epidemiological and in vitro studies

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Catherine M Olsen, Adèle C Green, Christina M Nagle, Susan J Jordan, David C Whiteman, Christopher J Bain, Penelope M Webb and on behalf of the Australian Cancer Study Group (Ovarian Cancer) and the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group

Introduction In 1998, Risch (1998) put forward a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer relating to the role of androgens in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation. Although widely discussed in the aetiologic literature, there is a

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P This, A De La Rochefordière, K Clough, A Fourquet, H Magdelenat and Breast Cancer Group of the Institut Curie

The current extension of the indications for adjuvant chemotherapy, which predisposes to early menopause, and the media coverage of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have led patients with a history of breast cancer to seek treatments for estrogen deprivation. In breast cancer survivors, most physicians avoid HRT because of concern regarding the potential promotion of growth of occult malignant cells by estrogens, due to the estrogen dependence of breast cancer. Soy phytoestrogens are being promoted as the 'natural alternative' to HRT and have been available without restrictions for several years as nutritional supplements. In this paper, data on the complex mammary effects of phytoestrogens in epidemiological studies, in in vitro studies, as well as in in vivo studies on animal carcinogenesis are reviewed. The potential benefits and risks of phytoestrogens are analyzed, and the prescription of phytoestrogens to postmenopausal women after breast cancer and the coprescription with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen are discussed. The absence of controlled trials and technical checking of extraction and titration in these preparations on 'free sale' raise a new problem in terms of public health and justify close reasoning and a cautious attitude of physicians, as well as straight information given to women, especially after breast cancer.

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Catherine M Olsen, Christina M Nagle, David C Whiteman, Roberta Ness, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Malcolm C Pike, Mary Anne Rossing, Kathryn L Terry, Anna H Wu, The Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer), Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, Harvey A Risch, Herbert Yu, Jennifer A Doherty, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rebecca Hein, Stefan Nickels, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Marc T Goodman, Michael E Carney, Rayna K Matsuno, Galina Lurie, Kirsten Moysich, Susanne K Kjaer, Allan Jensen, Estrid Hogdall, Ellen L Goode, Brooke L Fridley, Robert A Vierkant, Melissa C Larson, Joellen Schildkraut, Cathrine Hoyo, Patricia Moorman, Rachel P Weber, Daniel W Cramer, Allison F Vitonis, Elisa V Bandera, Sara H Olson, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Melony King, Louise A Brinton, Hannah Yang, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jolanta Lissowska, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Simon A Gayther, Susan J Ramus, Usha Menon, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj and Penelope M Webb

Introduction It is widely accepted that being overweight or obese increases a woman's risk of developing endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer ( Calle & Kaaks 2004 ). The association with ovarian cancer is less clear, largely because

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Nicola Normanno, Massimo Di Maio, Ermelinda De Maio, Antonella De Luca, Andrea de Matteis, Antonio Giordano and Francesco Perrone

Group-author : on behalf of the NCI-Naples Breast Cancer Group

Introduction It has long been established that estrogen is involved in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma, and that it sustains the growth of breast cancer cells that express the receptor for this hormone. Indeed, approximately 70

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Susanne Singer, Susan Jordan, Laura D Locati, Monica Pinto, Iwona M Tomaszewska, Cláudia Araújo, Eva Hammerlid, E Vidhubala, Olga Husson, Naomi Kiyota, Christine Brannan, Dina Salem, Eva M Gamper, Juan Ignacio Arraras, Georgios Ioannidis, Guy Andry, Johanna Inhestern, Vincent Grégoire, Lisa Licitra and on behalf of the EORTC Quality of Life Group, the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group, and the EORTC Endocrine Task Force

Introduction While thyroid cancer is one of the less common malignancies with an age-standardised rate in Europe of 6.3 per 100,000 per year (3.1 in men and 9.3 in women) ( Ferlay et al . 2013 ), the incidence rates have been rising rapidly

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Tracy A O'Mara, Dylan M Glubb, Jodie N Painter, Timothy Cheng, Joe Dennis, The Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group (ANECS), John Attia, Elizabeth G Holliday, Mark McEvoy, Rodney J Scott, Katie Ashton, Tony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, Mitul Shah, Shahana Ahmed, Catherine S Healey, Maggie Gorman, Lynn Martin, National Study of Endometrial Cancer Genetics Group (NSECG), Shirley Hodgson, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Per Hall, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Jingmei Li, Matthias Dürst, Ingo Runnebaum, Peter Hillemanns, Thilo Dörk, Diether Lambrechts, Jeroen Depreeuw, Daniela Annibali, Frederic Amant, Hui Zhao, Ellen L Goode, Sean C Dowdy, Brooke L Fridley, Stacey J Winham, Helga B Salvesen, Tormund S Njølstad, Jone Trovik, Henrica M J Werner, Emma Tham, Tao Liu, Miriam Mints, RENDOCAS, Manjeet K Bolla, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan P Tyrer, Qin Wang, John L Hopper, AOCS Group, Julian Peto, Anthony J Swerdlow, Barbara Burwinkel, Hermann Brenner, Alfons Meindl, Hiltrud Brauch, Annika Lindblom, Jenny Chang-Claude, Fergus J Couch, Graham G Giles, Vessela N Kristensen, Angela Cox, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Ian Tomlinson, Douglas F Easton, Deborah J Thompson and Amanda B Spurdle

Introduction Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological malignancy in developed countries ( http://globocan.iarc.fr/ ). Excessive endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure or estrogen exposure unopposed by progesterone

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Deborah J Thompson, Tracy A O'Mara, Dylan M Glubb, Jodie N Painter, Timothy Cheng, Elizabeth Folkerd, Deborah Doody, Joe Dennis, Penelope M Webb, for the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group (ANECS), Maggie Gorman, Lynn Martin, Shirley Hodgson, for the National Study of Endometrial Cancer Genetics Group (NSECG), Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan P Tyrer, Mel J Maranian, Per Hall, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Jingmei Li, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Thilo Dörk, Peter Hillemanns, Matthias Dürst, Ingo Runnebaum, Hui Zhao, Jeroen Depreeuw, Stefanie Schrauwen, Frederic Amant, Ellen L Goode, Brooke L Fridley, Sean C Dowdy, Stacey J Winham, Helga B Salvesen, Jone Trovik, Tormund S Njolstad, Henrica M J Werner, Katie Ashton, Tony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Emma Tham, Tao Liu, Miriam Mints, for RENDOCAS, Rodney J Scott, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Elizabeth G Holliday, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, Dale R Nyholt, Anjali K Henders, John L Hopper, Nadia Traficante, for the AOCS Group, Matthias Ruebner, Anthony J Swerdlow, Barbara Burwinkel, Hermann Brenner, Alfons Meindl, Hiltrud Brauch, Annika Lindblom, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Chang-Claude, Fergus J Couch, Graham G Giles, Vessela N Kristensen, Angela Cox, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Stig E Bojesen, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Ian Tomlinson, Mitch Dowsett, Douglas F Easton and Amanda B Spurdle

Introduction Established risk factors for endometrial cancer include high BMI ( IARC 2002 ), early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT) ( Beral et al . 2005 ) and tamoxifen use ( Cuzick et al

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Paolo Vigneri, Francesco Frasca, Laura Sciacca, Giuseppe Pandini and Riccardo Vigneri

million people live with diabetes globally, with this figure expected to reach 380 million within 20 years. Therefore, if diabetes is associated even with a small increase in the risk of cancer, this may have important consequences at the population level

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Zhenying Guo, Heather Hardin and Ricardo V Lloyd

Introduction Thyroid cancer is one of the most rapidly increasing malignancies in the USA ( Siegel et al . 2013 ). Although most well-differentiated thyroid cancers have a good prognosis, a small percentage of these tumors are associated with