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Kimberly Kamp, Brenda Gumz, Richard A Feelders, Dik J Kwekkeboom, Gregory Kaltsas, Frederico P Costa and Wouter W de Herder

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) form a heterogeneous group of relatively rare neoplasms that originate from different types of neuroendocrine cells ( Modlin et al . 2008 ). The incidence and prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP

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Nicté Figueroa-Vega, Ángel Díaz, Magdalena Adrados, Cristina Álvarez-Escolá, Amalia Paniagua, Julián Aragonés, Elena Martín-Pérez, Susanna Leskela, Ricardo Moreno-Otero, Roberto González-Amaro and Mónica Marazuela

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of uncommon neoplasms that include the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs, which constitute 70% of all NETs and 2% of all digestive tract tumors ( Modlin et al . 2008 , Oberg

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Thomas Cuny, Wouter de Herder, Anne Barlier and Leo J Hofland

Introduction Human gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumors emerging from cells producing glycopeptides and biogenic amines ( Klöppel 2011 ). They account for approximately 0.5% of all

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Kimberly Kamp, Ronald A M Damhuis, Richard A Feelders and Wouter W de Herder

gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the pancreas, gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs), are considered to be relatively rare tumors. However, more recent studies on NET epidemiology have demonstrated an increasing GEP-NET incidence and prevalence over the past 30

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Florian Bösch, Katharina Brüwer, Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann, Christoph J Auernhammer, Christine Spitzweg, C Benedikt Westphalen, Stefan Boeck, Gabriele Schubert-Fritschle, Jens Werner, Volker Heinemann, Thomas Kirchner, Martin Angele and Thomas Knösel

, Lawrence et al . 2011 ). Thus, NENs are nowadays as frequent as testicular tumors, Hodgkin’s disease, gliomas and multiple myeloma ( Modlin et al . 2008 ). Gastroenteropancreatic NENs (GEP-NENs) represent the preponderance with primaries localized in the

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Nicole Panarelli, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Justin Jong Mun Wong, Adrianna Majewski, Xiaojing Yang, Theresa Scognamiglio, Michelle Kang Kim, Kimberly Bogardus, Thomas Tuschl, Yao-Tseng Chen and Neil Renwick

Introduction Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are increasingly common and clinically diverse neoplasms ( Yao et al . 2008 , Lawrence et al . 2011 ) that are challenging to evaluate histologically ( Klimstra 2016

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Georgios K Dimitriadis, Martin O Weickert, Harpal S Randeva, Gregory Kaltsas and Ashley Grossman

Introduction Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are considered to be relatively rare, with an estimated incidence of 3–5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants; however, recent data indicate that their prevalence is increasing

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Günter Klöppel

, but is not specific for these tumours ( Klöppel et al . 2009 ). Under the electron microscope the NENs show typical neurosecretory granules. This review deals with the classification of the gastroenteropancreatic NENs (GEP-NENs) and discusses briefly

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Esben Andreas Carlsen, Nicola Fazio, Dan Granberg, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Chiara Maria Grana, Wouter T Zandee, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Martin A Walter, Peter Sandor Oturai, Anja Rinke, Andrew Weaver, Andrea Frilling, Sara Gritti, Anne Kirstine Arveschoug, Amichay Meirovitz, Ulrich Knigge and Halfdan Sorbye

poorly differentiated high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (G3). The terminology of NEN G3 relates to all high-grade (G3, Ki-67 >20%) neuroendocrine malignancies; i.e. both NET G3 and NEC. Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NENs G3 are rare, highly malignant

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M Fraenkel, M Kim, A Faggiano, W W de Herder, G D Valk and On behalf of the Knowledge NETwork

studies being published, we still lack adequate epidemiological information on NETs. This lack of data only partially explains the strong discrepancy between the estimated incidence of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs and the higher frequency of these