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Xiaoli Liu, Justin Bishop, Yuan Shan, Sara Pai, Dingxie Liu, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Hui Sun, Adel K El-Naggar and Mingzhao Xing

telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Promoter mutations in the TERT gene on chromosome 5 have recently been reported in melanomas ( Horn et al . 2013 , Huang et al . 2013 ). Two TERT promoter mutations, 1 295 228 C>T and 1 295 250 C>T (termed C228T

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Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

glioblastoma ( Killela et al . 2013 , Liu et al . 2013 a ) as well as thyroid cancer ( Liu et al . 2013 b ). There are two common recurrent TERT promoter mutations in human cancer that are located at two hotspots: chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1

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Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

) respectively. This study also revealed an exclusive occurrence of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer but not in benign thyroid tumors and also their association with poor clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer. These findings were

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Ebtesam Qasem, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Hindi Al-Hindi, Mingzhao Xing, Mai Almohanna, Meshael Alswailem and Ali S Alzahrani

are rare, TERT promoter mutations (C288T and C250T) have recently been described in many types of human cancers, including the follicular cell-derived TC ( Landa et al . 2013 , Liu et al . 2013 , Vinagre et al . 2013 ). They were also found to

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Tae Hyuk Kim, Young-Eun Kim, Soomin Ahn, Ji-Youn Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Young Lyun Oh, Kyunga Kim, Jae Won Yun, Woong-Yang Park, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim, Sun Wook Kim and Jae Hoon Chung

is to investigate the association of TERT promoter mutations with thyroid cancer-specific survival to lead to more informed decisions and better management of thyroid cancer. Subjects and methods Patients and clinicopathological data The

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Tiantian Liu, Taylor C Brown, C Christofer Juhlin, Adam Andreasson, Na Wang, Martin Bäckdahl, James M Healy, Manju L Prasad, Reju Korah, Tobias Carling, Dawei Xu and Catharina Larsson

activated in carcinogenesis. Recently, TERT promoter mutations have been reported in human malignancies, which create de novo ETS1-binding motifs stimulating the TERT transcription. This genetic event is thus proposed as a novel mechanism activating

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Felix Haglund, Carl Christofer Juhlin, Taylor Brown, Mehran Ghaderi, Tiantian Liu, Adam Stenman, Andrii Dinets, Manju Prasad, Reju Korah, Dawei Xu, Tobias Carling and Catharina Larsson

first described for melanoma ( Horn et al . 2013 ). Recently, the common TERT promoter mutations -146C>T (also called C250T) and -124C>T (C228T) have been implicated in the development of several endocrine tumors. They have been identified in

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Thomas G Papathomas, Lindsey Oudijk, Ellen C Zwarthoff, Edward Post, Floor A Duijkers, Max M van Noesel, Leo J Hofland, Patrick J Pollard, Eamonn R Maher, David F Restuccia, Richard A Feelders, Gaston J H Franssen, Henri J Timmers, Stefan Sleijfer, Wouter W de Herder, Ronald R de Krijger, Winand N M Dinjens and Esther Korpershoek

. 2013 , Huang et al . 2013 ). Similarly, other studies have revealed TERT promoter mutations at varying site-specific frequencies in conjunctival melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder cancer, CNS tumors, thyroid tumors, soft-tissue sarcomas

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Young Shin Song, Seong-Keun Yoo, Hwan Hee Kim, Gyeongseo Jung, Ah-Reum Oh, Ji-Young Cha, Su-jin Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Kyu Eun Lee, Jeong-Sun Seo and Young Joo Park

,295,228 C>T and 1,295,250 C>T, and both mutations create a binding motif for the ETS family of transcription factors ( Horn et al. 2013 , Huang et al. 2013 ). TERT promoter mutation in thyroid cancer was first reported in 2013 ( Liu et al. 2013

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Xiaopei Shen, Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

have been well established as the main genetic drivers of thyroid cancer, particularly PTC ( Garcia-Rostan et al. 2003 , Xing 2013 ). Following the initial report of two mutually exclusive TERT promoter mutations (chr5:1,295,228 C>T and chr5