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Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano and Jérôme Bertherat

pigmented micro-nodules widespread in adrenal cortex. PPNAD is usually diagnosed in patients with Cushing syndrome while PBMAH can cause variable degree of cortisol excess. The molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis are not the same in these different types

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Kiran Nadella, Fabio R Faucz, and Constantine A Stratakis

that produce cortisol in a corticotropin-independent manner, unlike the surrounding adrenal cortex which is frequently atrophic; these nodules may be detected by the cellular accumulation of pigment (i.e. lipofuscin) and using specific immunostaining

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Masanori Murakami, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Yujiro Nakano, Takahiro Fukaishi, Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Isao Minami, Ryotaro Bouchi, Kohji Okamura, Yasuhisa Fujii, Koshi Hashimoto, Ken-ichiro Hata, Kazunori Kihara, and Yoshihiro Ogawa

42 adrenal tumors were compared to microarray data from normal adrenal cortex (Gene Expression Omnibus [GEO] accession no. GSE68889), which included transcriptomes for adrenocortical layers, the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculate (ZF), from

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T M A Kerkhofs, M H T Ettaieb, I G C Hermsen, and H R Haak

Introduction Cancer of the adrenal cortex (ACC) occurs in about 1–2 people per million, which renders it a rare endocrine malignancy ( Kebebew et al . 2006 , Fassnacht & Allolio 2009 ). Complete surgical resection is the sole curative option. In

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Patricia de Cremoux, Dan Rosenberg, Jacques Goussard, Catherine Brémont-Weil, Frédérique Tissier, Carine Tran-Perennou, Lionnel Groussin, Xavier Bertagna, Jérôme Bertherat, and Marie-Laure Raffin-Sanson

) and monkeys ( Hirst et al . 1992 ), whereas PR was not detected in these species. During fetal development, large amounts of ERβ mRNA are present in the definitive zone of the human adrenal cortex. In these tissues, ERβ mRNA levels have been shown to

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Giada Poli, Daniele Guasti, Elena Rapizzi, Rossella Fucci, Letizia Canu, Alessandra Bandinelli, Nicoletta Cini, Daniele Bani, Massimo Mannelli, and Michaela Luconi

therapeutic strategy results in an overall response in 25–30% of ACC patients ( Hahner & Fassnacht 2005 ). MTT metabolism and protein binding are species specific and higher in cattle and dogs than in humans as demonstrated in adrenal cortex homogenates ( Cai

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S G Creemers, P M van Koetsveld, W W De Herder, F Dogan, G J H Franssen, R A Feelders, and L J Hofland

in the treatment of ACC was based on increased concentration of streptozotocin in the mice adrenal cortex after i.v. injection ( Tjalve et al. 1976 ). In the FIRM-act trial, however, streptozotocin in combination with mitotane appeared to be less

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Dimitra A Vassiliadi and Stylianos Tsagarakis

hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex driven by ACTH (ACTH-dependent MAH), either due to chronic ACTH secretion by tumors, such as in Cushing’s disease (CD) or ectopic ACTH secretion ( Sohaib et al. 1999 , Imaki et al. 2004 ) or due to excessive ACTH

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Maria Cristina De Martino, Richard A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder, Peter M van Koetsveld, Fadime Dogan, Joseph A M J L Janssen, A Marlijn Waaijers, Claudia Pivonello, Steven W J Lamberts, Annamaria Colao, Ronald R de Krijger, Rosario Pivonello, and Leo J Hofland

expression of the evaluated proteins in the different layers of the adrenal cortex suggests a specific role of the mTOR pathway in particular adrenal functions. For example, the stronger expression of several components of the mTOR pathway in the reticularis

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Stephen J Marx

followed by persistence or rapid recurrence. Total adrenalectomy is the preferred treatment. Adrenal cortex in HAIIIA Normal secretion of aldosterone is stimulated by increases of extracellular K+ or by angiotensin II ( Spat & Hunyady 2004 , Bollag 2014