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Anja Rudolph, Rebecca Hein, Sara Lindström, Lars Beckmann, Sabine Behrens, Jianjun Liu, Hugues Aschard, Manjeet K Bolla, Jean Wang, Thérèse Truong, Emilie Cordina-Duverger, Florence Menegaux, Thomas Brüning, Volker Harth, The GENICA Network, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Melissa Southey, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine D Figueroa, Mikael Eriksson, Keith Humpreys, Hatef Darabi, Janet E Olson, Kristen N Stevens, Celine M Vachon, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Alan Ashworth, Nicholas Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Penny M Webb, kConFab Investigators, AOCS Management Group, Pascal Guénel, Hiltrud Brauch, Graham Giles, Montserrat García-Closas, Kamila Czene, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Fergus J Couch, Irene L Andrulis, Anthony Swerdlow, David J Hunter, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Douglas F Easton, Per Hall, Heli Nevanlinna, Peter Kraft, Jenny Chang-Claude and on behalf of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

Introduction Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is prescribed to women in order to alleviate climacteric symptoms and it is still commonly used despite evidence of associations with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer (BC

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P This, A De La Rochefordière, K Clough, A Fourquet, H Magdelenat and Breast Cancer Group of the Institut Curie

The current extension of the indications for adjuvant chemotherapy, which predisposes to early menopause, and the media coverage of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have led patients with a history of breast cancer to seek treatments for estrogen deprivation. In breast cancer survivors, most physicians avoid HRT because of concern regarding the potential promotion of growth of occult malignant cells by estrogens, due to the estrogen dependence of breast cancer. Soy phytoestrogens are being promoted as the 'natural alternative' to HRT and have been available without restrictions for several years as nutritional supplements. In this paper, data on the complex mammary effects of phytoestrogens in epidemiological studies, in in vitro studies, as well as in in vivo studies on animal carcinogenesis are reviewed. The potential benefits and risks of phytoestrogens are analyzed, and the prescription of phytoestrogens to postmenopausal women after breast cancer and the coprescription with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen are discussed. The absence of controlled trials and technical checking of extraction and titration in these preparations on 'free sale' raise a new problem in terms of public health and justify close reasoning and a cautious attitude of physicians, as well as straight information given to women, especially after breast cancer.

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Nicola Normanno, Massimo Di Maio, Ermelinda De Maio, Antonella De Luca, Andrea de Matteis, Antonio Giordano and Francesco Perrone

Group-author : on behalf of the NCI-Naples Breast Cancer Group

Introduction It has long been established that estrogen is involved in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma, and that it sustains the growth of breast cancer cells that express the receptor for this hormone. Indeed, approximately 70

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Erin E Swinstead, Ville Paakinaho and Gordon L Hager

chromatin accessibility occurs in cancers ( Denny et al . 2016 , Qu et al . 2017 ). Breast cancer is no exception, with alterations occurring in chromatin accessibility, TF action and regulation ( Jeselsohn et al . 2015 , D’Antonio et al . 2017

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Elgene Lim, Gerard Tarulli, Neil Portman, Theresa E Hickey, Wayne D Tilley and Carlo Palmieri

approximately 75% of all breast cancers. When present, ER drives neoplasia and is a bona fide therapeutic target. The underlying aim of current endocrine therapy is to either reduce ER activity or reduce receptor levels within breast cancer cells. Despite the

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Steven M Hill, Victoria P Belancio, Robert T Dauchy, Shulin Xiang, Samantha Brimer, Lulu Mao, Adam Hauch, Peter W Lundberg, Whitney Summers, Lin Yuan, Tripp Frasch and David E Blask

exposure to light at night has been described as playing an important role in the development, promotion, and progression of breast cancer ( Reiter 1991 , Claustrat et al . 2005 , Jasser et al . 2006 , Reiter et al 2007 , Stevens et al . 2007

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Thérèse Truong, Benoît Liquet, Florence Menegaux, Sabine Plancoulaine, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Claire Mulot, Emilie Cordina-Duverger, Marie Sanchez, Patrick Arveux, Pierre Kerbrat, Sylvia Richardson and Pascal Guénel

natural circadian rhythm due to exposure to light at night has long been suspected to have an effect on breast cancer risk ( Stevens et al . 2014 ). In 2007, results from experimental and epidemiological studies led the International Agency for Research

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Keely M McNamara, Nicole L Moore, Theresa E Hickey, Hironobu Sasano and Wayne D Tilley

Introduction The importance of androgenic hormones in breast cancer has been recognised for much of the last century. Despite little understanding of their cellular actions in breast tissue at the time, androgenic compounds were used as breast

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M Bullock

Introduction Breast cancer is a leading cause of female death worldwide. Each year, almost 1.4 million women are diagnosed with breast cancer, and the disease will be responsible for 450 000 deaths ( Siegel et al . 2011 ). This review will

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Kevin C Knower, Sarah Q To, Yuet-Kin Leung, Shuk-Mei Ho and Colin D Clyne

Introduction Normal growth and function of the mammary glands are dependent on the body's endocrine system. Many factors that influence breast cancer risk are therefore endocrine-associated processes, such as age at menopause, age at menarche