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Alexa Childs, Amy Kirkwood, Julien Edeline, Tu Vinh Luong, Jennifer Watkins, Angela Lamarca, Doraid Alrifai, Phyllis Nsiah-Sarbeng, Roopinder Gillmore, Astrid Mayer, Christina Thirlwell, Debashis Sarker, Juan W Valle, and Tim Meyer

). Cytotoxic chemotherapy is the standard of care for poorly differentiated, high-grade tumours, but the overall prognosis is poor despite its use. Additionally, streptozocin-based chemotherapy has an established role in the management of PNET based on the

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Yong-Zi Chen, Youngchul Kim, Hatem H Soliman, GuoGuang Ying, and Jae K Lee

ER− breast cancer patients are excluded from hormonal and targeted therapies that are effectively used for other subtypes of breast cancer, neoadjvant chemotherapy is widely used in the management of ER− breast cancer in order to decrease tumor size

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Ana Albero, Juliana Ester Lopéz, Alberto Torres, Luis de la Cruz, and Tomas Martín

. 2009 ). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma refractory to radiodine (CDT-RTI) is not considered to be responsive to chemotherapy generally, although for decades this has been considered to be the only systemic treatment with a palliative purpose. Several

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Jue Shi and Timothy J Mitchison

( Rowinsky 1997 , Crown et al . 2004 , Jordan & Wilson 2004 , Canta et al . 2009 , Rebucci & Michiels 2013 ). In a large effort to improve anti-mitotic chemotherapy, inhibitors of more mitotic spindle-specific proteins, such as motor proteins (e

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Kellen Cristine Tjioe, Diovana Melo Cardoso, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira, and Daniel Galera Bernabé

progression, solid evidence has supported that NE is also capable of interfering in the treatment efficacy of different types of cancer ( MacDonald et al. 2019 ). NE and/or E may induce the resistance to chemotherapy of breast ( Su et al. 2005 , Flint et

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Souren Mkrtchian

-apoptotic branch of UPR? Tinkering with UPR in order to boost the efficacy of chemotherapy is a nice proof of concept; however, practical implementation would require development of the fine-tuned drugs that could activate specific UPR pathway(s) with high

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Wei Wei and Michael T Lewis

chemotherapy along with surgery. Unfortunately, not all patients who receive chemotherapy show clinical benefit, and side effects can be significant. In the case of disease recurrence, the recurrent cancer can be refractory to the original treatment. Breast

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Tania Moujaber, Rosemary L Balleine, Bo Gao, Ida Madsen, Paul R Harnett, and Anna DeFazio

’ staining, high expression of ER and PR p53 ‘overexpressed’ or completely absent, high expression of Ki-67 Clinical Younger (median 43–57 years) Older (median ~62 years) Less responsive to chemotherapy (4%) Responsive to chemotherapy (50

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M Heetfeld, C N Chougnet, I H Olsen, A Rinke, I Borbath, G Crespo, J Barriuso, M Pavel, D O'Toole, T Walter, and other Knowledge Network members

without treatment and up to 6–19 months in patients receiving the standard first-line, platinum-etoposide chemotherapy. In the course of the disease, almost all NEC show resistance to first-line chemotherapy. However, second-line treatment is not codified

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S G Creemers, P M van Koetsveld, W W De Herder, F Dogan, G J H Franssen, R A Feelders, and L J Hofland

was still only 14.8 months, but is now considered the treatment of choice ( Fassnacht et al. 2012 ). These data suggest that the resistance to chemotherapy is still a major impediment of successful systemic treatment of ACC patients. The limited