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Fábio Pereira, María Jesús Larriba and Alberto Muñoz

,25(OH) 2 D 3 ( Lamprecht & Lipkin 2003 , Deeb et al . 2007 ). Importantly, CYP27B1 is also expressed in other human tissues and cell types, such as colon, brain, prostate, endothelial and immune cells, suggesting an extrarenal production of 1,25(OH) 2

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Hyun-Seuk Moon and Christos S Mantzoros

Introduction Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies, ranking as the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States ( Jemal et al . 2008 ). Several epidemiological studies have linked colorectal cancer risk with

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Ssu-Ming Huang, Chingju Lin, Hsiao-Yun Lin, Chien-Ming Chiu, Chia-Wei Fang, Kuan-Fu Liao, Dar-Ren Chen and Wei-Lan Yeh

Introduction Colon cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal sarcomas and a leading cause of cancer-associated death in developed countries ( Siegel et al . 2014 ). It can be treated by surgery and combination chemotherapy. The etiology of

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Ssu-Ming Huang, Tzu-Sheng Chen, Chien-Ming Chiu, Leang-Kai Chang, Kuan-Fu Liao, Hsiao-Ming Tan, Wei-Lan Yeh, Gary Ro-Lin Chang, Min-Ying Wang and Dah-Yuu Lu

Introduction Vascular and neural neoplastic invasions have been found in patients with colon cancer ( Bellis et al . 1993 ). As vascular and neural infiltrations are known to be ominous prognostic factors, their identification has great clinical

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Lindsay G Carter, John A D'Orazio and Kevin J Pearson

reported to be as high as ∼4 μM (4.29 nmol/ml); however, it should be noted that resveratrol at this high dose was also associated with gastrointestinal side effects ( Brown et al . 2010 ). Interestingly, in human colon tissue, levels of resveratrol and

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Janina Ratke, Frank Entschladen, Bernd Niggemann, Kurt S Zänker and Kerstin Lang

correlated with an increased risk for certain types of cancer, including breast, colon, prostate, and other ( Housa et al . 2006 ). Obese individuals have ∼1.5- to 3.5-fold increased risk of developing these cancers compared with normal-weight individuals

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Cameron M Armstrong, Autumn R Billimek, Kimberly F Allred, Joseph M Sturino, Brad R Weeks and Clinton D Allred

Introduction Women have a reduced risk of developing colon cancer when compared with men. This protection is lost, however, once a woman reaches menopause, suggesting estrogen is a protective agent against colon tumor development. Data from the

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Justin C Brown, Michael R Rickels, Andrea B Troxel, Babette S Zemel, Nevena Damjanov, Bonnie Ky, Andrew D Rhim, Anil K Rustgi, Kerry S Courneya and Kathryn H Schmitz

Introduction Each year, more than 103,000 people are diagnosed with colon cancer in the United States ( Siegel et al . 2016 ). Three-quarters of patients will be diagnosed with disease that is localized to the colon (stage I–II) or spread to

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André Wendindondé Nana, Yu-Tang Chin, Chi-Yu Lin, Yih Ho, James A Bennett, Ya-Jung Shih, Yi-Ru Chen, Chun A Changou, Jens Z Pedersen, Sandra Incerpi, Leroy F Liu, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Earl Fu, Wen-Shan Li, Shaker A Mousa, Hung-Yun Lin and Paul J Davis

of relapse, which often leads to patients’ death. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed for this disease. The molecular pathogenesis of colon cancer encompasses the activation of several oncogenic signaling pathways, including the Wnt

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M Marino, P Galluzzo, S Leone, F Acconcia and P Ascenzi

during differentiative processes and in some forms of human cancer (e.g. colon adenocarcinoma) ( Weihua et al. 2003 , Bardin et al. 2004 , Paruthiyil et al. 2004 , Strom et al. 2004 , Martineti et al. 2005 , Koehler et al. 2005 ). S