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Michael Solarski, Fabio Rotondo, William D Foulkes, John R Priest, Luis V Syro, Henriett Butz, Michael D Cusimano, and Kalman Kovacs

well ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the various locations of endocrine tumors associated with DICER1 syndrome. A full colour version of this figure is available at https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-17-0509 . DICER1 is located on

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Andrea Weckman, Fabio Rotondo, Antonio Di Ieva, Luis V Syro, Henriett Butz, Michael D Cusimano, and Kalman Kovacs

neoplasia, endocrine tumors occur more rarely ( Table 1 ). Endocrine tumors are defined as neoplasia of the hormone-secreting cells of the classic endocrine glands, including the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, as well as the ovaries and

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A Perren, S Schmid, T Locher, P Saremaslani, C Bonvin, P U Heitz, and P Komminoth

endocrine tumors have been conducted (with the exception of thyroid tumors), although there are several indications pointing towards a possible role of BRAF in this type of tumor also. First, like melanomas ( Dupin & Le Douarin 2003 ), a subset of endocrine

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Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Joseph Rubin, Michael B Farnell, Clive S Grant, and Gloria M Petersen

Introduction Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are uncommon neoplasms with an incidence of <1 per 100 000 person-years in population studies ( Moldow & Connelly 1968 , Buchanan et al . 1986 , Eriksson et al . 1989 , Watson et al . 1989

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D Campana, F Nori, R Pezzilli, L Piscitelli, D Santini, E Brocchi, R Corinaldesi, and P Tomassetti

exerts a trophic effect on ECL-cells, which leads to hyperplasia and, in some cases, to gastric endocrine tumors ( Waldum et al . 1998 , Lehy et al . 2000 ). In particular, type I tumors occur mostly in women and are rarely symptomatic ( Borch et al

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Thomas J Giordano

more common cancers, endocrine tumors sometimes do not attract equal attention and resources largely due to their relative rare nature. Fortunately for these patients, many endocrine cancer types have been investigated as part this genomic revolution

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Cuiqi Zhou, Yunguang Tong, Kolja Wawrowsky, Serguei Bannykh, Ines Donangelo, and Shlomo Melmed

-time PCR (A and B); Oct-1 and hPTTG1 protein levels were measured by western blot (C and D). Oct-1 and hPTTG1 are concordantly expressed in endocrine tumors and colon cancers hPTTG1 is overexpressed in multiple human tumors including pituitary, breast, and

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Francesco Panzuto, Silvia Nasoni, Massimo Falconi, Vito Domenico Corleto, Gabriele Capurso, Sara Cassetta, Michela Di Fonzo, Valentina Tornatore, Massimo Milione, Stefano Angeletti, Maria Sofia Cattaruzza, Vincenzo Ziparo, Cesare Bordi, Paolo Pederzoli, and Gianfranco Delle Fave

Introduction Gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine tumors (GEP ETs) are rare neoplasms, with 1–4 cases per 100 000 people per year ( Quaedvlieg et al. 2001 , Modlin et al. 2003 , Lepage et al. 2004 , Taal & Visser 2004

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Yasuhiko Nagano, Do Ha Kim, Li Zhang, Jill A White, James C Yao, Stanley R Hamilton, and Asif Rashid

Introduction Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are uncommon, mostly well-differentiated and indolent neuroendocrine neoplasms, with an age-adjusted annual incidence of <1 per 100 000 ( Buchanan et al. 1986 ). The molecular

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A M Schmitt, S Schmid, T Rudolph, M Anlauf, C Prinz, G Klöppel, H Moch, P U Heitz, P Komminoth, and A Perren

Introduction The molecular pathogenesis of the sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) is still poorly understood ( Gumbs et al . 2002 ). Mutations in the MEN1 gene are the most common finding in hereditary PET ( Chandrasekharappa et al