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Michael Derwahl Department of Medicine, St Hedwig Hospital and Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Grosse Hamburger Straße 5‐11, 10115 Berlin, Germany

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Diana Nicula Department of Medicine, St Hedwig Hospital and Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Grosse Hamburger Straße 5‐11, 10115 Berlin, Germany

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( Galanti et al . 1995 , Rossing et al . 2000 , Sakoda & Horn-Ross 2002 , Horn-Ross et al . 2011 ). In contrast, low dose of estrogen in contraceptives and in replacement therapy in postmenopausal women does not contribute to a higher risk of thyroid

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Vanessa W Lim
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Jun Li
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Yinhan Gong
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Aizhen Jin Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Registry of Diseases Office, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block, Level 12, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore

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Jian-Min Yuan Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Registry of Diseases Office, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block, Level 12, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Registry of Diseases Office, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block, Level 12, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore

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Eu Leong Yong
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Woon-Puay Koh Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Registry of Diseases Office, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block, Level 12, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Registry of Diseases Office, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block, Level 12, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore

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Introduction There is ample experimental, epidemiological, and clinical evidence linking estrogens and breast cancer risk ( Henderson & Feigelson 2000 , Russo & Russo 2006 ). Several established risk factors for breast cancer are strongly

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Emmanuelle Fleurot Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, OERECA, Caen, France

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Caroline Goudin Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, OERECA, Caen, France

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Vincent Hanoux Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, OERECA, Caen, France

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Pierre-Jacques Bonnamy Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, OERECA, Caen, France

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Jérôme Levallet Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, OERECA, Caen, France
Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, CEA, CNRS, ISTCT/CERVOxy Group, Caen, France

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al. 2015 ) and are classified into subtypes according to the findings of histological, genetic and molecular analyses. Subtypes are defined according to the expression of estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptors (PR), with or without the expression of

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Adam W Nelson Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK

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Wayne D Tilley Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK

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David E Neal Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK

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Jason S Carroll Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK

Department of Urology Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, DX Number 650 801, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia

Department of Oncology University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK

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interest in the effects of estrogen on the prostate gland. Initially, hormone treatment for prostate cancer involved manipulation of systemic hormone levels with exogenous estrogen therapy (in the form of high-dose diethylstilbestrol) to suppress androgen

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Maria Eugenia Sabatino
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Juan Pablo Petiti
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Liliana del Valle Sosa
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Pablo Anibal Pérez
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Silvina Gutiérrez
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Carolina Leimgruber
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Alexandra Latini Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Laboratorio de Bioenergética y Estrés Oxidativo, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA–CONICET), Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina

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Alicia Inés Torres
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Ana Lucía De Paul
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of senescence during the development of tumors. In this study, we used a previously developed pituitary tumor experimental model, which consists of long-term estrogen administration in rats, and leads to the formation of prolactin (PRL) secretory

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Hen Prizant Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Manisha Taya Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Irina Lerman Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Allison Light Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Aritro Sen Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Soumya Mitra Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Thomas H Foster Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Stephen R Hammes Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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features, including similar SM cell types, expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ERs and PRs) ( Benassayag et al . 1999 ), and growth sensitivity to estrogens ( Maruo et al . 2004 ). In fact, a study on the uteri of ten LAM patients found

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Vinciane Corman Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Iulia Potorac Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Florence Manto Faculty of Medicine, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Sarah Dassy Department of Oncology, St Nikolaus-Hospital, Eupen, Belgium

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Karin Segers Department of Human Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Albert Thiry Department of Anatomo-pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Vincent Bours Department of Human Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Adrian F Daly Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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Albert Beckers Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium

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middle-aged patients ( van Kesteren et al . 1996 ). In MtF patients, development of female secondary sexual characteristics requires hormonal treatment with anti-androgens and estrogens. The doses of estrogens typically used in MtF patients are higher

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Manisha Taya Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez Division of Allergy/Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Javier Rangel-Moreno Division of Allergy/Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Briaunna Minor Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Erin Gibbons Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Stephen R Hammes Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Introduction Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, devastating pulmonary lung disease almost exclusively affecting women in their reproductive years whereby estrogen-sensitive metastatic smooth-muscle cell-like adenomas grow within the

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Paola De Marco
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Enrica Romeo
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Adele Vivacqua
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Roberta Malaguarnera Department of Pharmacy Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy

Regional Hospital Cosenza, Italy

Endocrinology Department of Health, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy

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Sergio Abonante Department of Pharmacy Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy

Regional Hospital Cosenza, Italy

Endocrinology Department of Health, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy

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Francesco Romeo Department of Pharmacy Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy

Regional Hospital Cosenza, Italy

Endocrinology Department of Health, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy

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Vincenzo Pezzi
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Antonino Belfiore Department of Pharmacy Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy

Regional Hospital Cosenza, Italy

Endocrinology Department of Health, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy

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Marcello Maggiolini
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crosstalk between insulin and estrogen signaling pathways triggers multiple biological events in breast carcinogenesis ( Rose & Vona-Davis 2012 , Catsburg et al . 2014 ). Estrogens mainly act through the classical estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2

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Nicholas Russell Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Ada Cheung Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Mathis Grossmann Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been a cornerstone of PCa management since the 1940s. A variety of approaches have been used: bilateral orchiectomy; high-dose oral or parenteral estrogens; luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists (LHRHa

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