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Athanasios Bikas, Kirk Jensen, Aneeta Patel, John Costello Jr, Dennis McDaniel, Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Olexander Larin, Victoria Hoperia, Kenneth D Burman, Lisa Boyle, Leonard Wartofsky and Vasyl Vasko

metformin. Recent studies have indicated that the anti-proliferative effects of metformin in cancer cells are highly dependent on the glucose concentration in the extracellular milieu ( Wahdan-Alaswad et al . 2013 , Zordoky et al . 2014 ). It has been

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Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Athanasios G Papavassiliou and Hippokratis Kiaris

2012 ). Ultimately, the β-cells die of ER-stress-associated death, compromising overall pancreatic function and glucose homeostasis ( Back & Kaufman 2012 ). The transcription factor CHOP, a member of the CCAAT–enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) family of

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Barbara Salani, Alberto Del Rio, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti, Renzo Cordera and Davide Maggi

cells exploit all possible mechanisms, including increased metabolism, demand for nutrients and consumption of glucose, which is known as the Warburg effect ( Koppenol et al . 2011 ). Results of recent studies have indicated that metformin treatment

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Yuanyuan Cui, Nagalakshmi Nadiminty, Chengfei Liu, Wei Lou, Chad T Schwartz and Allen C Gao

et al . 2005 , Cunningham et al . 2007 ). In this study, we demonstrated through gene expression array data analysis that genes involved in glucose metabolic pathways in p52-overexpressing LNCaP cells were upregulated. Further analysis on glucose

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Wiebke Fenske, Hans-Ullrich Völker, Patrick Adam, Stefanie Hahner, Sarah Johanssen, Sebastian Wortmann, Melanie Schmidt, Michael Morcos, Hans-Konrad Müller-Hermelink, Bruno Allolio and Martin Fassnacht

reliable prognostic factors for survival in ACC are lacking. More than 80 years ago, Warburg (1956) described that one of the most fundamental characteristics of cancer cells is an increased level of glucose uptake and its anaerobic metabolism. Most

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Anne E Cust, Rudolf Kaaks, Christine Friedenreich, Fabrice Bonnet, Martine Laville, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Kim Overvad, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Véronique Chajès, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Jakob Linseisen, Annekatrin Lukanova, Heiner Boeing, Tobias Pischon, Antonia Trichopoulou, Bamia Christina, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Domenico Palli, Franco Berrino, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Inger Torhild Gram, Eiliv Lund, J R Quirós, Noémie Travier, Carmen Martínez-García, Nerea Larrañaga, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Eva Ardanaz, Göran Berglund, Eva Lundin, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Fränzel J B van Duijnhoven, Petra H M Peeters, Sheila Bingham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi Allen, Tim Key, Pietro Ferrari, Sabina Rinaldi, Nadia Slimani and Elio Riboli

) are implicated in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but little is known about the possible role of other related metabolic factors such as hypertension, elevated glucose levels, or unfavorable lipid profiles. Some of these factors may interact with

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Cheng-Chieh Lin, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Ching-Chu Chen, Sing-Yu Yang, Cheng-Chun Lee and Tsai-Chung Li

-induced insulin resistance and links obesity-derived chronic inflammation with insulin resistance and cancer pathogenesis ( Greten et al . 2004 , Hu et al . 2004 , Lee et al . 2004 , 2008 ). Glucose stability is one of the classical risk factors that has

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L Shao, Q Huang, M Luo and M Lai

IGF-binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a member of the IGF axis. In our previous work, we separated cDNA fragments of IGFBP-rP1 from colonic adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa cDNA subtraction libraries. In this study, we compared the expression of IGFBP-rP1 by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry among colorectal cancer, adenoma, normal tissue adjacent to cancer site, and normal tissue. Associations between IGFBP-rP1 and plasma glucose were further explored. We found that the mRNA level of IGFBP-rP1 was highest in cancer, moderate in adenoma and tissue adjacent to the cancer site and lowest in normal tissue (P<0.05). A significant difference was found in the immunoreactivity of IGFBP-rP1 between paired normal and cancer tissue (P<0.05). Tumor samples with upregulated expression of IGFBP-rP1 in invading tumor cells showed an increased frequency of metastasis to the lymph node, an increased depth of infiltration and stronger staining of IGFBP-rP1 compared with other samples (P<0.05). The fasting glucose level was significantly correlated with the staining of IGFBP-rP1 in cancer tissue (Spearman's rho=0.4, P<0.000). Thus, we concluded overexpression of IGFBP-rP1 might play an important role in the initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer. IGFBP-rP1 expression may also be associated with fasting glucose level and the presence of diabetes mellitus.

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Mark A White, Efrosini Tsouko, Chenchu Lin, Kimal Rajapakshe, Jeffrey M Spencer, Sandi R Wilkenfeld, Sheiva S Vakili, Thomas L Pulliam, Dominik Awad, Fotis Nikolos, Rajasekhara Reddy Katreddy, Benny Abraham Kaipparettu, Arun Sreekumar, Xiaoliu Zhang, Edwin Cheung, Cristian Coarfa and Daniel E Frigo

Introduction Altered cell metabolism is now acknowledged as one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer ( Hanahan & Weinberg 2011 ). Common among most cancer cells is an increased ability to take up and metabolize large amounts of glucose to help

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K M Biernacka, C C Uzoh, L Zeng, R A Persad, A Bahl, D Gillatt, C M Perks and J M P Holly

prognosis and more aggressive cancers ( Hammarsten & Hogstedt 2004 , 2005 ). Furthermore, aggressive tumours comprise more active cancer cells associated with increased metabolism and increased glucose uptake ( Chen et al . 2007 ). The mainstay of