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Mabel Ryder, Margaret Callahan, Michael A Postow, Jedd Wolchok and James A Fagin

. 2010 ). Immune-related hypophysitis, the most common endocrine irAE in this analysis, is a particularly challenging diagnosis because before anti-CTLA4 therapy, this was a rare disease confined primarily to postpartum women ( Caturegli et al . 2005

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Priscilla Cukier, Fernando C Santini, Mariana Scaranti and Ana O Hoff

et al . 2017 ). The spectrum of autoimmune adverse events is different in the anti-CTLA4- and anti-PD-L1-treated patients. For example, thyroid diseases are more frequent with PD-1 blockade, whereas colitis and hypophysitis are more frequent with CTLA

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F Castinetti, F Albarel, F Archambeaud, J Bertherat, B Bouillet, P Buffier, C Briet, B Cariou, Ph Caron, O Chabre, Ph Chanson, C Cortet, C Do Cao, D Drui, M Haissaguerre, S Hescot, F Illouz, E Kuhn, N Lahlou, E Merlen, V Raverot, S Smati, B Verges and F Borson-Chazot

between October 2017 and April 2018, and formulated an expert opinion based on an exhaustive literature review (using PubMed) with the search terms ‘ICPI, CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1, diabetes, hypophysitis, thyroiditis, adrenal insufficiency’, over the period

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Joanne Y Y Ngeow and Laura S Ward

hypopituitarism caused by hypophysitis, to thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, type 1 diabetes and rarely, hypoparathyroidism. It is clear from this special issue that more research into the mechanism of immune reactions induced by immunotherapy is needed, but

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S Latteyer, V Tiedje, B Schilling and D Führer

-CTLA-4 treatment are frequent and include immune-related endocrinopathies, notably hypophysitis ( Yang et al. 2007 ), adrenalitis ( Yang et al. 2007 ) and thyroiditis ( Blansfield et al. 2005 , Dillard et al. 2010 , Min et al. 2011 , Corsello

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Thomas Cuny, Caroline Zeiller, Martin Bidlingmaier, Céline Défilles, Catherine Roche, Marie-Pierre Blanchard, Marily Theodoropoulou, Thomas Graillon, Morgane Pertuit, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Alain Enjalbert, Thierry Brue and Anne Barlier

capillary wall, like ipilimumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody of 148kDa directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), which can trigger an hypophysitis state in humans by binding the CTLA-4 when expressed on the pituitary cells

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Shahnawaz Imam, Rodis Paparodis, Deepak Sharma and Juan Carlos Jaume

– 1422 . ( doi:10.1038/leu.2011.99 ). Mirocha S Elagin RB Salamat S Jaume JC 2009 T regulatory cells distinguish two types of primary hypophysitis . Clinical Experimental Immunology 155 403 – 411 . ( doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03828.x

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Christina Wei and Elizabeth C Crowne

thyroiditis, adrenalitis and hypophysitis. To date, there is minimal evidence in the long-term endocrine effects of immunotherapy in childhood cancer survivors. Data extrapolated from adults treated with immunotherapy reported a prevalence of primary adrenal

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Gregory A Kaltsas, Jane Evanson, Alexandra Chrisoulidou and Ashley B Grossman

 Pituitary abscess, bacterial and fungal  Tuberculosis  Sarcoidosis  Wegener's granulomatosis  Mucocele (sphenoid)  Hypophysitis (lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous)  Tolosa–Hunt syndrome Vascular lesions  Aneurysms  Cavernous sinus thrombosis

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L A Emens, R T Reilly and E M Jaffee

-specific peptide vaccination. In this study, six individuals (43%) developed Grade III autoimmunity (dermatitis, enterocolitis, hepatitis, hypophysitis), and three (21%) developed objective evidence of tumor regression. Further study with this CTLA-4