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Jingyuan Ma, Xinyu Huang, Jungong Zhao, Jingyi Lu, Wei Lu, Yuqian Bao, Jian Zhou, and Junfeng Han

Introduction In non-diabetic individuals, hypoglycemia is usually associated with endogenous hyperinsulinism due to insulinoma or insulin autoimmune hypoglycemia, though it is not common in clinical disorders. On other occasions, hypoglycemia

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Emanuel Christ, Kwadwo Antwi, Melpomeni Fani, and Damian Wild

Introduction Insulinomas are rare (incidence 1-4/Mio/year), usually benign insulin-secreting neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) located in the pancreas ( Service et al. 1991 , Placzkowski et al. 2009 ). They are capable of secreting insulin

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Jingqi Fu, Hongzhi Zheng, Qi Cui, Chengjie Chen, Simeng Bao, Jing Sun, Lu Li, Bei Yang, Huihui Wang, Yongyong Hou, Yuanyuan Xu, Yuanhong Xu, Qiang Zhang, and Jingbo Pi

Introduction Insulinomas are the most common type of pancreatic endocrine tumors and often cause hypoglycemia due to persistent hyperinsulinemia. Insulinomas are rare and most often (~90%) are small and benign ( Ro et al . 2013 , Parbhu

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Z Hamze, C Vercherat, A Bernigaud-Lacheretz, W Bazzi, R Bonnavion, J Lu, A Calender, C Pouponnot, P Bertolino, C Roche, R Stein, J Y Scoazec, C X Zhang, and M Cordier-Bussat

glands), as well as in a significant proportion of sporadic pancreatic NETs (PETs) including insulinomas ( Corbo et al . 2010 , Jiao et al . 2011 ). Insulinomas are tumours characterised by the maintenance of a high level of differentiation (including

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Mieke E R Henfling, Aurel A Perren, Anja M Schmitt, Christiane M Saddig, Achim A Starke, Robert G Riedl, Yvonne M H Versleijen-Jonkers, Diana M Sprij-Mooij, Frans C S Ramaekers, Leo J Hofland, and Ernst-Jan M Speel

14% of (non-functioning) PanNETs. Moreover, ( Missiaglia et al. 2010 ) reported downregulation of PTEN and TSC2, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway, in up to 70% of non-functioning and functioning PanNETs, including insulinomas. Whole-genome sequencing

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David A Pattison and Rodney J Hicks

standard investigation for many years, the rapid development and evaluation of molecular imaging techniques now provide the opportunity for non-invasive localisation and characterisation of insulinoma using a variety of cellular targets. These targets

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Y M H Jonkers, S M H Claessen, A Perren, S Schmid, P Komminoth, A A Verhofstad, L J Hofland, R R de Krijger, P J Slootweg, F C S Ramaekers, and E-J M Speel

Introduction Endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs) represent 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms and are separated on the basis of their clinical manifestation into functioning (syndrome-related) and non-functioning tumors. Insulinomas are

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Edward B Alabraba, Philippe Taniere, Gary M Reynolds, Paul M Stewart, Stephen J Wigmore, and Simon R Bramhall

pancreatic cancer have been unanimously disappointing ( Keating et al . 1989 , Bakkevold et al . 1990 , Taylor et al . 1993 ). There have been no clinical trials of anti-progestogenic therapy in pancreatic cancer. Insulinomas are rare neuroendocrine

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Y Capodanno, F O Buishand, L Y Pang, J Kirpensteijn, J A Mol, and D J Argyle

Introduction Insulinomas (INS) are the most common functioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours (PancNETs) in humans and dogs. INS are insulin-producing tumours that arise from beta-cells ( Wang et al . 2004 , Bailey & Page 2007 , Polton

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Sandra Valéria de Sá, Maria Lúcia Corrêa-Giannella, Márcio Carlos Machado, Jean Jorge S de Souza, Maria Adelaide Albergaria Pereira, Rosely Antunes Patzina, Sheila Aparecida Coelho Siqueira, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, and Daniel Giannella-Neto

effects on the cell cycle, while the function of SSTR4 remains unknown ( Lamberts et al. 2002 ). Insulinomas are rare endocrine neoplasias that constitute the most frequent islet cell tumours, with an estimated incidence of four cases per one