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Jonathan M Fussey, Robin N Beaumont, Andrew R Wood, Bijay Vaidya, Joel Smith, and Jessica Tyrrell

et al. 2018 ) and the possibility of reverse causality. This difficulty can be overcome by using genetic epidemiological techniques such as Mendelian randomization (MR), which relies upon the fact that genetic variants predisposing to a certain trait

Open access

Jonathan M Fussey, Robin N Beaumont, Andrew R Wood, Bijay Vaidya, Joel Smith, and Jessica Tyrrell

conclusions of the manuscript ‘Mendelian randomization supports a causative effect of TSH on thyroid carcinoma’ published on 18 August 2020 in volume 27 part 10, pages 551–559 . As such, and with agreement from all authors, the article has now been retracted

Open access

Deborah J Thompson, Tracy A O'Mara, Dylan M Glubb, Jodie N Painter, Timothy Cheng, Elizabeth Folkerd, Deborah Doody, Joe Dennis, Penelope M Webb, for the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group (ANECS), Maggie Gorman, Lynn Martin, Shirley Hodgson, for the National Study of Endometrial Cancer Genetics Group (NSECG), Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan P Tyrer, Mel J Maranian, Per Hall, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Jingmei Li, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Thilo Dörk, Peter Hillemanns, Matthias Dürst, Ingo Runnebaum, Hui Zhao, Jeroen Depreeuw, Stefanie Schrauwen, Frederic Amant, Ellen L Goode, Brooke L Fridley, Sean C Dowdy, Stacey J Winham, Helga B Salvesen, Jone Trovik, Tormund S Njolstad, Henrica M J Werner, Katie Ashton, Tony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Emma Tham, Tao Liu, Miriam Mints, for RENDOCAS, Rodney J Scott, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Elizabeth G Holliday, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, Dale R Nyholt, Anjali K Henders, John L Hopper, Nadia Traficante, for the AOCS Group, Matthias Ruebner, Anthony J Swerdlow, Barbara Burwinkel, Hermann Brenner, Alfons Meindl, Hiltrud Brauch, Annika Lindblom, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Chang-Claude, Fergus J Couch, Graham G Giles, Vessela N Kristensen, Angela Cox, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Stig E Bojesen, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Ian Tomlinson, Mitch Dowsett, Douglas F Easton, and Amanda B Spurdle

confounding ( Fig. 1 ). If the association is causal, then variants causally associated with E 2 levels should also be associated with endometrial cancer, with a magnitude that can be predicted using a Mendelian randomization methodology ( C-Reactive Protein

Free access

S E Bojesen, S K Kjær, E V S Høgdall, B L Thomsen, C K Høgdall, J Blaakær, A Tybjærg-Hansen, and B G Nordestgaard

GD & Ebrahim S 2004 Mendelian randomization: prospects, potentials, and limitations. International Journal of Epidemiology 33 30 –42. STATA/SE for Windows, rel. 8.2. USA: Stata Corporation 2004

Free access

Xiaqing Xu, Meimei Si, Honggang Lou, Youyou Yan, Yunxi Liu, Hong Zhu, Xiaoe Lou, Jian Ma, Difeng Zhu, Honghai Wu, Bo Yang, Haoshu Wu, Ling Ding, and Qiaojun He

control study . Gut 54 533 – 539 . ( https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2004.052167 ) 15753540 10.1136/gut.2004.052167 De Silva NM Freathy RM Palmer TM Donnelly LA Luan J Gaunt T Langenberg C Weedon MN Shields B Knight BA , et al . 2011 Mendelian

Open access

Frances Collins, Nozomi Itani, Arantza Esnal-Zufiaurre, Douglas A Gibson, Carol Fitzgerald, and Philippa T K Saunders

E Doody D Dennis J Webb PM , Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group (ANECS) , 2016 CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization: estradiol is causal for endometrial cancer . Endocrine-Related Cancer 77 – 91 . ( https

Open access

Jonathan Wesley Nyce

J Law MH Whiteman DC Neale RE Gharahkhani P MacGregor S 2018 Height and overall cancer risk and mortality: evidence from a Mendelian randomization study on 310,000 UK Biobank participants . British Journal of Cancer 1262 – 1267

Open access

Jonathan W Nyce

overall cancer risk and mortality: evidence from a Mendelian randomization study on 310,000 UK Biobank participants . British Journal of Cancer 118 1262 – 1267 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0063-4 ) 10.1038/s41416-018-0063-4 Orentreich N