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Trisha Dwight, Aidan Flynn, Kaushalya Amarasinghe, Diana E Benn, Richard Lupat, Jason Li, Daniel L Cameron, Annette Hogg, Shiva Balachander, Ida L M Candiloro, Stephen Q Wong, Bruce G Robinson, Anthony T Papenfuss, Anthony J Gill, Alexander Dobrovic, Rodney J Hicks, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh and Richard W Tothill

the adrenal medulla. Although rare, they often occur as part of hereditary endocrine tumor syndromes and their study has been richly rewarding for identifying genetic events that drive tumorigenesis ( Castro-Vega et al . 2015 a ). Metastatic disease

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Fernanda Vaisman, Denise P Carvalho and Mario Vaisman

( Cooper et al . 2009 ), but remain with structural disease after 6–24 months of initial therapy can have the initial risk of recurrence doubled or tripled in some cases ( Vaisman et al . 2011 ). This is especially important in patients with metastatic

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Jaume Capdevila, Lara Iglesias, Irene Halperin, Ángel Segura, Javier Martínez-Trufero, Maria Ángeles Vaz, Jesús Corral, Gabriel Obiols, Enrique Grande, Juan Jose Grau and Josep Tabernero

in thyroid carcinomas ( Wilhelm et al . 2004 ). We report the results of a retrospective population-based study evaluating the activity of sorafenib in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer. Materials and methods Patients Eligible patients were ≥18

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John E Phay and Matthew D Ringel

Introduction Metastatic disease is the primary cause of cancer mortality for most solid tumors including thyroid cancer ( Kitamura et al . 1999 , Mazzaferri & Kloos 2001 ). Distant metastatic disease is present at presentation in only 3–15% of

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F M Brouwers, E F Petricoin III, L Ksinantova, J Breza, V Rajapakse, S Ross, D Johann, M Mannelli, B L Shulkin, R Kvetnansky, G Eisenhofer, M M Walther, B A Hitt, T P Conrads, T D Veenstra, D P Mannion, M R Wall, G M Wolfe, V A Fusaro, L A Liotta and K Pacak

et al. 2001 b ). The incidence reported for metastatic pheochromocytoma ranges (depending on the genetic background and tumor localization) from 3 to 36% of pheochromocytoma patients. Meta-static disease has an overall 5-year survival rate of 50% ( O

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Martin Ullrich, Josephine Liers, Mirko Peitzsch, Anja Feldmann, Ralf Bergmann, Ulrich Sommer, Susan Richter, Stefan R Bornstein, Michael Bachmann, Graeme Eisenhofer, Christian G Ziegler and Jens Pietzsch

other neoplasms, at least 30% of PPGLs have a hereditary background with variable development of metastatic disease dependent on the mutated gene ( Lenders et al. 2005 ). Germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B ( SDHB ) are associated

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Libero Santarpia, George A Calin, Liana Adam, Lei Ye, Alfredo Fusco, Serena Giunti, Christina Thaller, Laura Paladini, Xinna Zhang, Camilo Jimenez, Francesco Trimarchi, Adel K El-Naggar and Robert F Gagel

, a genetic diagnosis provides an opportunity for a prophylactic thyroidectomy and cancer cure. However, most cases of MTC are sporadic, presenting with metastatic disease at diagnosis, both in the local and in the regional lymph nodes, and in distant

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Jamie L Van Etten and Scott M Dehm

tumor size, and metastatic spread ( Knudsen & Scher 2009 ). Second-line ADT drugs that provide a more effective blockade of systemic androgen synthesis (abiraterone acetate) or act as higher-affinity antagonists of AR (enzalutamide) improve overall

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Taymeyah Al-Toubah, Stefano Partelli, Mauro Cives, Valentina Andreasi, Franco Silvestris, Massimo Falconi, Daniel A Anaya and Jonathan Strosberg

% ( Lloyd et al. 2017 ). Although well-differentiated GEP-NETs are often slow growing, even indolent metastatic tumors can become more aggressive and change grade over the disease course, likely due to accumulation of mutations ( Rinke et al. 2009

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Y M H Jonkers, S M H Claessen, A Perren, S Schmid, P Komminoth, A A Verhofstad, L J Hofland, R R de Krijger, P J Slootweg, F C S Ramaekers and E-J M Speel

different functioning and non-functioning subtypes ( Chung et al. 1998 , Speel et al. 1999 , 2001 , Stumpf et al. 2000 , Zhao et al. 2001 ). Several markers for malignant or metastatic progression in EPTs have been indicated, in particular loss