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Athanasios Bikas, Kirk Jensen, Aneeta Patel, John Costello Jr, Dennis McDaniel, Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Olexander Larin, Victoria Hoperia, Kenneth D Burman, Lisa Boyle, Leonard Wartofsky and Vasyl Vasko

Introduction Targeting cancer cell metabolism has emerged as a novel approach to prevent or treat cancers ( Pollak 2012 ). Recent epidemiological and laboratory studies have demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug metformin has anti-cancer activity

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K M Biernacka, R A Persad, A Bahl, D Gillatt, J M P Holly and C M Perks

. 2004 , Kasper & Giovannucci 2006 ). Therefore, new ways are needed to improve response to current treatment and to decrease mortality associated with diabetes and PCa. There is currently a lot of interest in metformin, a drug commonly used to treat

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Hyun-Seuk Moon and Christos S Mantzoros

risk for several obesity-associated malignancies including endometrial, breast, prostate, and especially colon cancer ( Wei et al . 2005 , Moon et al . 2011 , 2013 , Dalamaga et al . 2012 ). Metformin (Met), an insulin sensitizer, acts mainly by

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Barbara Salani, Alberto Del Rio, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti, Renzo Cordera and Davide Maggi

Introduction Metformin is a biguanide, whose chemical scaffold was discovered by the extraction of the galegine, a guanidine analogue, from French lilac ( Galega officinalis ) plants. Metformin is the first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes

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Sunmi Park, Mark C Willingham, Jun Qi and Sheue-Yann Cheng

preclinical studies provided supporting evidence that Thrb PV/PV Pten +/ − mice could be used to test other potential therapeutics to prevent obesity-activated thyroid cancer. Accordingly, we tested metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide

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Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Kirk Jensen, John Costello, Aneeta Patel, Victoria Hoperia, Andrew Bauer, Kenneth D Burman, Leonard Wartofsky and Vasyl Vasko

suggested that under metabolic stress, binding of AMPK to KSR2 prevents RAF/MEK to be targeted to the plasma membrane for their activation ( Luo et al . 2010 ). The antidiabetic drug metformin has been shown to be a potent AMPK activator. On the

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Carolyn Algire, Mahvash Zakikhani, Marie-Jose Blouin, Jian Hua Shuai and Michael Pollak

Introduction Population studies provide early circumstantial evidence that patients with type II diabetes treated with metformin have reduced cancer incidence ( Evans et al . 2005 ) and mortality ( Bowker et al . 2006 ), when compared with type II

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Yevgeniya Kushchayeva, Kirk Jensen, Kenneth D Burman and Vasyl Vasko

al . 2008 ). There are currently no clinical trials using statins in TC patients, but the data suggest that statins merit further investigation as anti-TC agents. Metformin Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been widely used in the

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Carolyn Algire, Lilian Amrein, Mahvash Zakikhani, Lawrence Panasci and Michael Pollak

( Frasca et al . 1999 , Becker et al . 2009 ), reviewed in Pollak (2008) . Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, lowers the elevated insulin levels found in type II diabetes by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose output, which in turn reduces

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Emma H Allott and Stephen D Hursting

(reviewed in ( Hursting et al . 2010 )). Pharmaceuticals Type II diabetes and metformin Type II diabetes currently affects ∼15% of the adult population in the U.S., and the prevalence of this obesity-associated co-morbidity is on the increase ( Boyle et al