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Guido Rindi and Frediano Inzani

unattributable to any given organ if not tested for site-specific antigens (i.e. hormones or transcription factors) ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1 The neuroendocrine neoplasm category. The neuroendocrine cancer is defined as neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN), a category

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Elizabeth Grubbs, Daniel Halperin, Steven G Waguespack, and Robert F Gagel

The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) workshops had their beginnings at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario in June 1984. This initial meeting brought clinicians and scientists together to focus on mapping the gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). These efforts culminated in the identification of the RET protooncogene as the causative gene a decade later. Over the next 35 years there were a total of 16 international workshops focused on the several MEN syndromes. Importantly, these workshops were instrumental in efforts to define the molecular basis for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), Carney Complex, hereditary pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. In this same spirit some 150 scientists and clinicians met at MD Anderson Cancer Center, 27–29 March 2019, for the 16th International Workshop on Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN2019). Appropriate to its location in a cancer centre, the workshop focused on important issues in the causation and treatment of malignant aspects of the MEN syndromes: medullary thyroid carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, malignant pheochromocytoma and parathyroid carcinoma. Workshops at the meeting focused on a better understanding of how the identified molecular defects in these genetic syndromes lead to transformation, how to apply targeted kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy to treat these tumours and important clinical management issues. This issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer describes these discussions and recommendations.

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G Rindi, C Klersy, F Inzani, G Fellegara, L Ampollini, A Ardizzoni, N Campanini, P Carbognani, T M De Pas, D Galetta, P L Granone, L Righi, M Rusca, L Spaggiari, M Tiseo, G Viale, M Volante, M Papotti, and G Pelosi

, we competitively tested a large multicenter cohort of lung neuroendocrine tumors with the WHO 2004 classification of lung neuroendocrine cancer (from now on WHO 2004) vs the current WHO classification of digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms (from now on

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Joanne Y Y Ngeow and Laura S Ward

authors update the use of established as well as novel immune checkpoint inhibitors across the various endocrine-related cancers including less common tumor subtypes such as neuroendocrine cancers and adrenocortical cancers. It is evident from their review

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Hiroshi Imaoka, Mitsuhito Sasaki, Hideaki Takahashi, Yusuke Hashimoto, Izumi Ohno, Shuichi Mitsunaga, Kazuo Watanabe, Kumiko Umemoto, Gen Kimura, Yuko Suzuki, and Masafumi Ikeda

and M S) independently screened each record for eligibility by examining the titles, abstracts and keywords. The search terms included ‘neuroendocrine tumor’, ‘neuroendocrine neoplasm’, ‘neuroendocrine cancer’, ‘neuroendocrine carcinoma’, or ‘carcinoid

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Michael Höpfner, Viola Baradari, Alexander Huether, Christof Schöfl, and Hans Scherübl

. Primary cell cultures of human neuroendocrine cancers were established as a tool to design a rational individual medical treatment of an individual patient. The primary goal was to study NVP-AEW541’s anti-neoplastic potency in a bench-to-bedside approach

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Kosmas Daskalakis, Olov Norlén, Andreas Karakatsanis, Per Hellman, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, and Peter Stålberg

2017 Systemic chemotherapy with FOLFOX in metastatic grade 1/2 neuroendocrine cancer . Molecular and Clinical Oncology 6 44 – 48 . ( ) 28123727 10.3892/mco.2016.1097 Fine RL Gulati AP Krantz BA Moss RA

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Alexa Childs, Amy Kirkwood, Julien Edeline, Tu Vinh Luong, Jennifer Watkins, Angela Lamarca, Doraid Alrifai, Phyllis Nsiah-Sarbeng, Roopinder Gillmore, Astrid Mayer, Christina Thirlwell, Debashis Sarker, Juan W Valle, and Tim Meyer

-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized neuroendocrine cancers . Journal of Clinical Oncology 29 2416 – 2423 . ( doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.33.7873 ) Khan MS Luong TV Watkins J Toumpanakis C Caplin ME Meyer T 2013 A comparison of Ki-67 and mitotic

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Bertrand Brieau, Olivia Hentic, Rachida Lebtahi, Maxime Palazzo, Makrem Ben Reguiga, Vinciane Rebours, Frederique Maire, Pascal Hammel, Philippe Ruszniewski, and Pierre Fenaux

long-term toxicity after therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized neuroendocrine cancers . Journal of Clinical Oncology 29 2416 – 2423 . ( doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.33.7873 ) Kesavan M Claringbold PG

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David J Gross, Gabriel Munter, Menachem Bitan, Tali Siegal, Alberto Gabizon, Ronny Weitzen, Ofer Merimsky, Aliza Ackerstein, Asher Salmon, Avishai Sella, and Shimon Slavin

. This thyroid neuroendocrine cancer is frequently associated with mutations causing constitutive activation of the ret proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase both in premalignant lesions (C-cell hyperplasia) and frank MTC. IM has recently been shown to inhibit