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Mabel Ryder, Margaret Callahan, Michael A Postow, Jedd Wolchok and James A Fagin

suppresses T-cell proliferation, helping restore tissue homeostasis ( Egen et al . 2002 , Pentcheva-Hoang et al . 2004 ). Nivolumab, a second antibody-derived immune regulator, blocks the activation of the anti-programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also called

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Priscilla Cukier, Fernando C Santini, Mariana Scaranti and Ana O Hoff

, Hellmann et al . 2017 ). Table 1 Immunotherapy monoclonal antibodies and their main indications. Anti-PD-1 Anti-PD-L1 Anti-CTLA4 Nivolumab Pembrolizumab Atezolizumab Durvalumab Avelumab Ipilimumab Melanoma

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S Latteyer, V Tiedje, B Schilling and D Führer

itself seems to drive PD-L1 expression on cancer cells ( Spranger et al. 2013 ). Antibodies interrupting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction ( Fig. 3 ) such as nivolumab (anti-PD-1, Bristol-Myers Squibb), pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1, MSD Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ

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F Castinetti, F Albarel, F Archambeaud, J Bertherat, B Bouillet, P Buffier, C Briet, B Cariou, Ph Caron, O Chabre, Ph Chanson, C Cortet, C Do Cao, D Drui, M Haissaguerre, S Hescot, F Illouz, E Kuhn, N Lahlou, E Merlen, V Raverot, S Smati, B Verges and F Borson-Chazot

, some cases of orbitopathy without thyroid abnormality have been described in patients treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab ( Min et al. 2011 , McElnea et al. 2014 , Campredon et al. 2018 ). In the case of hypothyroidism, the presence of anti

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Lucas Leite Cunha, Marjory Alana Marcello, Vinicius Rocha-Santos and Laura Sterian Ward

inhibitors are antibodies directed against co-inhibitory molecules. By blocking the interaction between CTLA-4 and B7-1/2 (e.g., ipilimumab) or PD-1 (e.g., nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and PD-L1 (e.g., durvalumab, atezolizumab and avelumab), immune checkpoint

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Atsuko Kasajima, Yuichi Ishikawa, Ayaka Iwata, Katja Steiger, Naomi Oka, Hirotaka Ishida, Akira Sakurada, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Toru Kameya, Björn Konukiewitz, Günter Klöppel, Yoshinori Okada, Hironobu Sasano and Wilko Weichert

Seelbach, and Ulrike Mühlthaler (Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany) for their excellent technical support. References Antonia SJ Lopez-Martin JA Bendell J 2016 Nivolumab alone and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in recurrent small

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Ben C Whitelaw

/lapatinib Case reports showing radiological and/or biochemical response (in ACTH and PRL tumours). Clinical trial results are pending. Bevacizumab Stable disease achieved in case reports Nivolumab and ipilimumab Dramatic response in one case

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Massimo Bongiovanni, Caterina Rebecchini, Chiara Saglietti, Jean-Luc Bulliard, Laura Marino, Laurence de Leval and Gerasimos P Sykiotis

metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (; accessed 17.03.2017). The second anti-PD1 agent approved was nivolumab, initially approved for the treatment of

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Belinda van Zyl, Denise Tang and Nikola A Bowden

recent advancement of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD1 (pembrolizumab, nivolumab and avelumab) and anti-CTLA4 (ipilumimab) monoclonal antibodies has led to biomarker development in relation to TILs ( Tumeh et al. 2014 ) and circulating

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Stephan Gasser, Lina H K Lim and Florence S G Cheung

 Ipilimumab I; recruiting Anti-CTLA4 Thyroid, pancreatic Enoblituzumab (MGA271) NCTb2381314  Nivolumab II; recruiting Anti-PD1 Adrenocortical NCTb2720484  Nivolumab II; recruiting Anti-PD1 Pancreatic Ipilimumab (anti