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Elham Barazeghi, Anthony J Gill, Stan Sidhu, Olov Norlén, Roberto Dina, F Fausto Palazzo, Per Hellman, Peter Stålberg, and Gunnar Westin

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a slow-growing and rare parathyroid disease associated with highly elevated parathyroid hormone levels and hypercalcemia. PC occurs in less than 1 to <5% of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) cases

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Xiang Zhang, Ya Hu, Mengyi Wang, Ronghua Zhang, PeiPei Wang, Ming Cui, Zhe Su, Xiang Gao, Quan Liao, and Yupei Zhao

Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that is typically caused by benign or malignant neoplasia. Parathyroid adenoma (PAd) is the leading cause of pHPT, while parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is a rare

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Nancy D Perrier, Andrew Arnold, Jessica Costa-Guda, Naifa L Busaidy, Ha Nguyen, Hubert H Chuang, and Maria Luisa Brandi

Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN2019), whose main focus was on malignancy in hereditary endocrine tumor syndromes. Parathyroid carcinoma (PC), first described by Sainton & Millot (1933) , is a rare malignant neoplasm involving the parathyroid gland and one of the

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Vincenzo Condello, Filomena Cetani, Maria Denaro, Liborio Torregrossa, Elena Pardi, Paolo Piaggi, Simona Borsari, Anello Marcello Poma, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Paolo Graziano, Maria Grazia Chiofalo, Andrea Repaci, Giovanni Tallini, Francesco Boi, Gabriele Materazzi, Fulvio Basolo, and Claudio Marcocci

by a single parathyroid adenoma (PA) in about 80% of cases, the multi-glandular disease in 15–20% and parathyroid carcinoma (PC) in less than 1% ( Bilezikian et al. 2018 ). PHPT occurs in up to 90% of patients as a sporadic disease, and in the

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F Cetani, E Pardi, C Banti, P Collecchi, P Viacava, S Borsari, G Fanelli, A G Naccarato, F Saponaro, P Berti, P Miccoli, A Pinchera, and C Marcocci

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy and accounts for <1% of cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) ( Marcocci et al . 2008 ). Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been linked to parathyroid

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F Lumachi, M Ermani, F Marino, A Poletti, SMM Basso, M Iacobone, and G Favia

with primary hyperparathyroidism, abnormal parathyroid glands have been characterized as being hyperplastic, adenomatous or malignant, but parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an uncommon finding, accounting for only 1–2% of cases ( Arnaud 1994 , Shane

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S Corbetta, V Vaira, V Guarnieri, A Scillitani, C Eller-Vainicher, S Ferrero, L Vicentini, I Chiodini, M Bisceglia, P Beck-Peccoz, S Bosari, and A Spada

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma (PaC) is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism ( Marx 2000 ). It is associated with a poor prognosis, and no curative therapies are available. PaCs occur either sporadically or in family members

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Filomena Cetani, Claudio Marcocci, Liborio Torregrossa, and Elena Pardi

. 2017 ). Most patients with HPT-JT are at increasing risk of parathyroid carcinoma (up to 37%) and develop single or multiple cystic parathyroid adenomas and occasionally atypical adenomas ( Marx & Goltzman 2019 ). Because of the underlying genetic basis

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Kelly Brewer, Jessica Costa-Guda, and Andrew Arnold

. Table 2 Selected genetic lesions of established or potential pathogenic importance in sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. Gene Established or hypothesized role Primary mechanism Role in tumorigenesis CDC73 (parafibromin

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Anna Angelousi, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Georgios Zografos, Svenja Nölting, Gregory Kaltsas, and Ashley Grossman

). Approximately, 0.2% of pituitary tumours can develop cranial and extra-cranial metastases ( Kaltsas et al. 2005 a , Heaney et al. 2011 ), whereas the incidence of parathyroid carcinomas is estimated at less than 1% in patients with primary