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Arthur S Tischler and Ronald R deKrijger

, Bausch et al . 2006 ), were known to be associated with pheochromocytomas, all with well-defined syndromic manifestations, and the genetic associations of extra-adrenal paragangliomas had not been determined. The main role of pathology was to make a

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Günter Klöppel

the pathology and biology of the various GEP-NEN entities that are observed in the foregut, midgut and hindgut regions. Classification The NENs arise from the neuroendocrine cell system that forms organoid cell aggregations or consists of disseminated

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S L Asa, O Casar-Borota, P Chanson, E Delgrange, P Earls, S Ezzat, A Grossman, H Ikeda, N Inoshita, N Karavitaki, M Korbonits, E R Laws Jr, M B Lopes, N Maartens, I E McCutcheon, O Mete, H Nishioka, G Raverot, F Roncaroli, W Saeger, L V Syro, A Vasiljevic, C Villa, A Wierinckx, J Trouillas, and and the attendees of 14th Meeting of the International Pituitary Pathology Club, Annecy, France, November 2016

/or health insurance coverage for therapies that would be provided for ‘cancers’. The International Pituitary Pathology Club, created in 1981, is a group of expert pathologists, endocrinologists, neurosurgeons and scientists who meet on a regular basis to

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Jaesung (Peter) Choi, Yu Zheng, David J Handelsman, and Ulla Simanainen

epithelial PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology that was enhanced by glandular AR inactivation Uteri were classified into three progressive histological categories of carcinogenesis using H&E staining: uteri with normal glands ( Fig. 1A ), hyperplastic

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Sylvia L Asa, Walter Kucharczyk, and Shereen Ezzat

have experienced, may also prove to have therapeutic significance. In the era of precision medicine, it is critical that endocrine oncology maintain its position as a leader in understanding the importance of tumor classifications based on pathology

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Michael Solarski, Fabio Rotondo, William D Foulkes, John R Priest, Luis V Syro, Henriett Butz, Michael D Cusimano, and Kalman Kovacs

. American Journal of Surgical Pathology 41 1178 – 1187 . ( ) 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000895 de Sousa GRV Ribeiro TC Faria AM Mariani BMP Lerario AM Zerbini MCN Soares IC Wakamatsu A Alves VAF Mendonca BB

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Ruth Foley, Donal Hollywood, and Mark Lawler

pathology of prostate cancer. Alterations in expression or function of numerous genes involved in key aspects of carcinogenesis, including cell cycle regulation, steroid hormone metabolism and regulation of gene expression, are associated with disease

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M Lacroix, R-A Toillon, and G Leclercq

Molecular Pathology 9 14 –19. Aubele M , Werner M & Hofler H 2002 Genetic alterations in presumptive precursor lesions of breast carcinomas. Analytical Cell Pathology 24 69 –76

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J A Menéndez, I Mehmi, D W Griggs, and R Lupu

CYR61 (CNN1), a member of the cysteine rich 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed (CYR61/CTFG/NOV) family of growth regulators (CNN), is a pro-angiogenic factor that mediates diverse roles in development, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. We have recently shown that CYR61 is overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human breast cancer cells. Accordingly, elevated levels of CYR61 in breast cancer are associated with more advanced disease. Unfortunately, the exact mechanisms by which CYR61 promotes an aggressive breast cancer phenotype are still largely unknown. This review examines the functional role of CYR61 in breast cancer disease, presenting evidence that CYR61 signaling may play a major role in estrogen- as well as growth factor-dependent breast cancer progression. We also emphasize the functional significance of the molecular connection of CYR61 and its integrin receptor alpha(v)beta(3) enhancing breast cancer aggressiveness. Moreover, we describe experimental evidence that establishes a novel role for CYR61 determining the protection of human breast cancer cells against chemotherapy-induced apoptosis through its interactions with the integrin receptor alpha(v)beta(3). All these findings delineate a new noteworthy function of a CYR61/alpha(v)beta(3) autocrine-paracrine signaling pathway within both angiogenesis and breast cancer progression, which would allow a dual anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor benefit with a single drug.

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Jaesung (Peter) Choi, Reena Desai, Yu Zheng, Mu Yao, Qihan Dong, Geoff Watson, David J Handelsman, and Ulla Simanainen

. β-actin was used as a loading control. Ovariectomy and implants To determine the role of androgens in the uterine pathology in the controlled hormonal environment, PTENKO and PTENARKO mice were ovariectomized (OVX) under anesthesia at 5 weeks of age