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Suman Rice and Saffron A Whitehead

al. 2004 ). That said, high consumption of phytoestrogens, which are very weak mimics of natural oestrogens, are associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer (Limer & Spiers 2004). Phytoestrogens, HRT, and breast cancer

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P This, A De La Rochefordière, K Clough, A Fourquet, H Magdelenat and Breast Cancer Group of the Institut Curie

The current extension of the indications for adjuvant chemotherapy, which predisposes to early menopause, and the media coverage of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have led patients with a history of breast cancer to seek treatments for estrogen deprivation. In breast cancer survivors, most physicians avoid HRT because of concern regarding the potential promotion of growth of occult malignant cells by estrogens, due to the estrogen dependence of breast cancer. Soy phytoestrogens are being promoted as the 'natural alternative' to HRT and have been available without restrictions for several years as nutritional supplements. In this paper, data on the complex mammary effects of phytoestrogens in epidemiological studies, in in vitro studies, as well as in in vivo studies on animal carcinogenesis are reviewed. The potential benefits and risks of phytoestrogens are analyzed, and the prescription of phytoestrogens to postmenopausal women after breast cancer and the coprescription with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen are discussed. The absence of controlled trials and technical checking of extraction and titration in these preparations on 'free sale' raise a new problem in terms of public health and justify close reasoning and a cautious attitude of physicians, as well as straight information given to women, especially after breast cancer.

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Ramiro Dip, Sarah Lenz, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Hans Gmuender and Hanspeter Naegeli

cancers ( Ingram et al . 1997 , Branca & Lorenzetti 2005 ). However, why endogenous estrogen hormones or synthetic xenoestrogens increase cancer risk, whereas natural phytoestrogens appear to exert an opposite preventive action, is not understood. In the

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Douglas A Gibson and Philippa T K Saunders

) , Moriyama et al . (2002) , Lee et al . (2003) , Takayanagi et al . (2006) , Matsushima et al . (2007) and Sui et al . (2012) Agonist of PXR Antagonist of ThR Genistein (phytoestrogen) RBA ERβ≫ERα Activates transcription via

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Lindsay G Carter, John A D'Orazio and Kevin J Pearson

breast tissue. Hormone therapy is also available, especially for post-menopausal women. Resveratrol is considered a phytoestrogen that seems to have both agonistic and antagonistic effects on estrogen ( Bowers et al . 2000 , Bhat et al . 2001 ). Given

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Daniela Gallo, Elisabetta Mantuano, Manuela Fabrizi, Cristiano Ferlini, Simona Mozzetti, Ilaria De Stefano and Giovanni Scambia

present study was designed to investigate the potential interaction between a phytoestrogen-containing soy extract (SSE) and the anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 in a well established preclinical model of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. The primary endpoint was

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Habibur P Rahman, Johannes Hofland and Paul A Foster

whole grain cereals ( Yang et al . 2014 ). Supporting this, it has been widely speculated that dietary oestrogenic compounds from plant sources, termed phytoestrogens, are protective against prostate cancer and are the reason behind lower incidence

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Elizabeth W LaPensee and Nira Ben-Jonathan

), and bisphenol A (BPA); and phytoestrogens. Adipose tissue represents the stromal compartment within the breast as well as abdominal and subcutaneous depots. Both PRL and estrogens (likely via aromatization) are also produced within tumor cells

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Ann M Dorward, Kathryn L Shultz and Wesley G Beamer

tumorigenesis in this mouse model. The isoflavone components of plants, commonly called ‘phytoestrogens’, are of considerable interest to the scientific community for their potential impact on reproductive, cardiovascular, and bone health as a result of their

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V Craig Jordan

). Laboratory studies illustrate that the constituents of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE; Obiorah & Jordan 2013 ), the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A ( Sengupta et al . 2013 ), and phytoestrogens ( Obiorah et al . 2014 b ) can trigger cell replication or