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Delila Gasi Tandefelt, Joost Boormans, Karin Hermans and Jan Trapman

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men in the USA and in other countries with a Western lifestyle ( Siegel et al . 2013 ). Almost all prostate cancers are

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Clovis Boibessot and Paul Toren

cancer (PCa) ( Huggins & Hodges 1941 ). Androgens, as well as estrogens and progesterone, appear to play a significant role in not only carcinogenesis, but also on the progression of PCa. Castration remains the primary treatment for advanced prostate

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Melissa Gamat and Douglas G McNeel

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and the second most common cause of cancer death in men in the United States ( Siegel et al. 2016 ). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), using surgical or chemical castration, is

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Gido Snaterse, Jenny A Visser, Wiebke Arlt and Johannes Hofland

Introduction Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent form of cancer, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancers, in men in Western countries with an estimated 677.473 new cases in Europe and North America in 2014 ( Forman & Ferlay 2014

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Christine Helsen, Thomas Van den Broeck, Arnout Voet, Stefan Prekovic, Hendrik Van Poppel, Steven Joniau and Frank Claessens

Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a major healthcare problem and it is expected that the prevalence will only increase due to aging of the population. In 2013, it is estimated that PCa will account for 28% of all cancers in the USA with 29

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Ying Ying Sung and Edwin Cheung

Introduction Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the USA ( Siegel et al . 2012 ). The androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, is a key

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Zhu Wang, Dinglan Wu, Chi-Fai Ng, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Shan Yu, Yuliang Wang and Franky L Chan

basis of hormone therapy for prostate cancer (androgen deprivation by castration or AR-axis targeted therapy by antiandrogens) by targeting mainly the AR-axis signaling, as proposed originally by Huggins and Hodges in the 1940s ( Huggins & Hodges 1941

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Alastair Davies, Amina Zoubeidi and Luke A Selth

Introduction The androgen receptor (AR) is the principal driver of prostate cancer development and resistance; accordingly, AR pathway inhibitors (ARPIs) are used to treat men at all stages of the disease. Drug resistance ultimately ensues

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Simon Linder, Henk G van der Poel, Andries M Bergman, Wilbert Zwart and Stefan Prekovic

Introduction Ever since the discovery that prostate cancer (PCa) growth after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, researchers have been looking for new effective ways to block the action of

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Subing Cao, Yang Zhan and Yan Dong

Introduction The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway remains active in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) (reviewed in Knudsen & Scher 2009 , Egan et al . 2014 , Kahn et al . 2014 ). Mechanisms leading to AR reactivation