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Weijun Wei, Heather Hardin, and Quan-Yong Luo

Introduction Thyroid cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women in the United States and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer before the age of 30 years among women in China ( Chen et al. 2016 ). Although thyroid cancer is generally

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Carles Zafon, Joan Gil, Beatriz Pérez-González, and Mireia Jordà

Introduction Thyroid cancer, the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, covers the full range of phenotypes from indolent to the worst forms of human cancer. It is categorized into differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), poorly differentiated

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Hao Fu, Lin Cheng, Yuchen Jin, and Libo Chen

thyroid carcinoma. With globally rising incidence, thyroid carcinoma has attracted much more concern than before. In theory, thyrotoxicosis with suppressed TSH should lead to a lower incidence of thyroid cancer than that observed in euthyroid patients

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Xianhui Ruan, Xianle Shi, Qiman Dong, Yang Yu, Xiukun Hou, Xinhao Song, Xi Wei, Lingyi Chen, and Ming Gao

Introduction Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer of endocrine system, with a rapid worldwide increase over recent decades ( Enewold et al. 2009 , Kilfoy et al. 2009 , Chen et al. 2016 ). The disease is classified into three types

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Christopher W Rowe, Jonathan W Paul, Craig Gedye, Jorge M Tolosa, Cino Bendinelli, Shaun McGrath, and Roger Smith

differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), TSHR is therapeutically targeted to maximize radioiodine uptake into malignant thyrocytes by transiently upregulating the sodium–iodide symporter (NIS) through TSH stimulation, either endogenously through thyroid hormone

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Gustavo Penna, Ileana G S Rubio, Ester Saraiva Brust, Juliana Cazarin, Fabio Hecht, Nina Ramalho Alkmim, Kamilla M A Brandão Rajão, and Helton Estrela Ramos

during life, leading to the early discovery of incidental PTCs. The possibility of a causal association instead of a direct cause-effect link in cases of co-occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism and thyroid cancer should also be considered

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Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

glioblastoma ( Killela et al . 2013 , Liu et al . 2013 a ) as well as thyroid cancer ( Liu et al . 2013 b ). There are two common recurrent TERT promoter mutations in human cancer that are located at two hotspots: chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1

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Livia Lamartina, Nadège Anizan, Corinne Dupuy, Sophie Leboulleux, and Martin Schlumberger

Introduction Since the '40s, the treatment of distant metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer is based on the administration of a high activity of 131 I and this was the first available targeted therapy for metastatic disease that

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Susan J Hsiao and Yuri E Nikiforov

Introduction Among endocrine tumors, thyroid cancer is the most common, with an estimated incidence of 12.2/100 000 per year in the USA ( Howlader et al . 2013 ). The incidence of thyroid cancer, both in the USA and worldwide, has been increasing

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Athanasios Bikas, Kirk Jensen, Aneeta Patel, John Costello Jr, Dennis McDaniel, Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Olexander Larin, Victoria Hoperia, Kenneth D Burman, Lisa Boyle, Leonard Wartofsky, and Vasyl Vasko

). In cell lines derived from follicular and papillary thyroid cancers, metformin inhibited cell growth, activated AMPK, down-regulated p70S6K/pS6 signaling, antagonized the growth-stimulatory effects of insulin, inhibited clonal cell growth, and reduced