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F Frasca, C Nucera, G Pellegriti, P Gangemi, M Attard, M Stella, M Loda, V Vella, C Giordano, F Trimarchi, E Mazzon, A Belfiore and R Vigneri

mutation ( BRAF (V600E) ) accounts for over 90% of all BRAF mutations and consists of a thymine-to-adenine transversion at position 1799 in exon 15 of BRAF , leading to a valine-to-glutamate transversion at residue 600 and thus facilitating ATP binding

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Peng Hou, Dingxie Liu and Mingzhao Xing

transverse point mutation accounts for vast majority of them ( Nikiforov 2008 ). The T1799A BRAF mutation causes a substitution of valine with glutamic acid in codon 600 (V600E), resulting in constitutive and oncogenic activation of the BRAF kinase in the

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Xiaopei Shen, Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

, Howlader et al. 2016 ). PTC can be further classified into several variant types, including mainly conventional PTC (CPTC), follicular-variant PTC (FVPTC) and tall-cell PTC (TCPTC), among which CPTC was the most common. BRAF V600E and RAS mutations

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Zongjing Zhang, Dingxie Liu, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Zhimin Liu and Mingzhao Xing

Introduction BRAF V600E mutation is the most common genetic alteration in thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; Xing 2005 ), and plays an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis through aberrantly activating the RAS-BRAF

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Min-Hee Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Dong-Jun Lim, Hyoungnam Lee, So Ra Jeon, Gyeong Sin Park and Chan Kwon Jung

Introduction The V600E BRAF mutation is the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation varies according to the histological subtype; the mutation is frequent in the tall cell

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L Fugazzola, E Puxeddu, N Avenia, C Romei, V Cirello, A Cavaliere, P Faviana, D Mannavola, S Moretti, S Rossi, M Sculli, V Bottici, P Beck-Peccoz, F Pacini, A Pinchera, F Santeusanio and R Elisei

599Ins) found in a classic variant of PTC ( Carta et al. 2006 ), the amino acid change B-RAF V600E is the only mutation consistently found in PTC. This mutation is of great importance because the V600 residue significantly contributes to the

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Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

. Association of TERT promoter mutations with BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid cancer BRAF V600E is the most common oncogene in thyroid cancer that plays a fundamental role in the tumorigenesis and progression of thyroid cancer, particularly PTC ( Xing 2005

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Vassiliki Kotoula, Elias Sozopoulos, Helen Litsiou, Galinos Fanourakis, Triantafyllia Koletsa, Gerassimos Voutsinas, Sophia Tseleni-Balafouta, Constantine S Mitsiades, Axel Wellmann and Nicholas Mitsiades

2004 , Mitsiades et al . 2007 ). The most common mutation is a T1799A nucleotide change resulting in a V600E amino acid residue change within the B-Raf activation domain ( Nikiforova et al . 2003 ), generating a protein with high baseline enzymatic

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Matthias S Dettmer, Anja Schmitt, Hans Steinert, David Capper, Holger Moch, Paul Komminoth and Aurel Perren

times their widths.’), and the percentage of tall cells (TCs) needed in a given tumor is defined variably in the literature ( Ostrowski & Merino 1996 , DeLellis et al . 2004 ). The oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation occurs in about 40–45% of PTCs

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Rengyun Liu and Mingzhao Xing

), and galectin 3 ( Bartolazzi et al . 2008 ) and prognostically BRAF V600E mutation ( Xing et al . 2013 b , 2014 a ). However, the diagnostic and prognostic accuracies of these markers still have much room for improvement and new markers are