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Anna Angelousi, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, George Kyriakopoulos, Marina Tsoli, Dimitrios Thomas, Gregory Kaltsas, and Ashley Grossman

The adrenals are the fourth most common metastatic site for all cancers after the lung, liver, and bone ( Oshiro et al. 2011 , Shumarova 2016 ). The frequencies of adrenal metastases at autopsy, adrenalectomy and fine-needle aspiration (FNA

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Christina Wei and Elizabeth C Crowne

prevalence increases over time ( Patterson et al. 2012 , Brignardello et al. 2013 , Mostoufi-Moab et al. 2016 ). Abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPAA) are relatively less common in childhood cancer survivors compared with

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Tianzhu Zang, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Daniel Tamae, Wanling Xie, Clementina Mesaros, Zhenwei Zhang, Glenn Bubley, Bruce Montgomery, Steven P Balk, Elahe A Mostaghel, Ian A Blair, and Trevor M Penning

adrenal androgen synthesis in ‘hormone refractory prostate cancer’ . Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology 32 43 – 45 . ( doi:10.4103/0971-5851.81890 ) 10.4103/0971-5851.81890 Gomella LG 2009 Effective testosterone suppression for

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D E Schteingart, G M Doherty, P G Gauger, T J Giordano, G D Hammer, M Korobkin, and F P Worden

children, compared with a worldwide incidence of 0.3/million children younger than 15 ( Figueiredo et al. 1999 ). The etiology of adrenal cancer is unknown but molecular cytogenetic cloning studies in the past 5 years have described chromosomal

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Thomas J Giordano

adrenal cortical carcinoma project ( Zheng et al . 2016 ) combined telomere length data with genotype, gene expression and copy number data to extract critical insights into the role of telomere maintenance and whole-genome doubling in these cancers. Such

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Mouna Tabebi, Peter Söderkvist, and Oliver Gimm

Mitochondrial alterations in cancers Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are exclusively inherited maternally, and 10 3 –10 4 copies are present in human cells and replicate independently of nuclear DNA (nDNA) ( Valiente-Pallejà et al. 2022 ). Human

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Maya B Lodish and Constantine A Stratakis

Introduction Dysregulated kinase signaling is invariably involved in the pathogenesis of all types of malignancies. Therefore, enormous efforts are being devoted to the development of small molecule drugs that regulate the abnormal cancer ‘kinome

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Fernand Labrie

2011a Blockade of testicular and adrenal androgens in prostate cancer treatment . Nature Reviews. Urology 8 73 – 85 . ( doi:10.1038/nrurol.2010.231 ). Labrie F 2011b Editorial: the major role of androgens in prostate cancer and the need for

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Gido Snaterse, Jenny A Visser, Wiebke Arlt, and Johannes Hofland

Bloem LM Quanson JL Ehlers R Serafin AM Swart AC 2017 Profiling adrenal 11beta-hydroxyandrostenedione metabolites in prostate cancer cells, tissue and plasma: UPC2-MS/MS quantification of 11beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11keto

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Luise Eckardt, Maria Prange-Barczynska, Emma J Hodson, James W Fielding, Xiaotong Cheng, Joanna D C C Lima, Samvid Kurlekar, Gillian Douglas, Peter J Ratcliffe, and Tammie Bishop

Introduction Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are tumours of the autonomic paraganglia that arise in diverse anatomical locations from the skull base to the pelvis. Those found within the adrenal glands (AGs) are known as