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Zhaoxia Zhang, Sasha Beyer, and Sissy M Jhiang

Introduction Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women living in the United States and is the second most common cause of cancer death in women ( American Cancer Society 2012 ). Because of routine clinical examination and increased

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Yuji Ikeda, Kazuma Kiyotani, Poh Yin Yew, Taigo Kato, Kenji Tamura, Kai Lee Yap, Sarah M Nielsen, Jessica L Mester, Charis Eng, Yusuke Nakamura, and Raymon H Grogan

population, thyroid cancer survivors have a 30% increased risk of a second primary breast cancer ( Sandeep et al . 2006 ). The incidence of second primary cancers is also high even in participants with thyroid micro-carcinoma ( Kim et al . 2013 , Hsu et

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P This, A De La Rochefordière, K Clough, A Fourquet, H Magdelenat, and Breast Cancer Group of the Institut Curie

The current extension of the indications for adjuvant chemotherapy, which predisposes to early menopause, and the media coverage of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have led patients with a history of breast cancer to seek treatments for estrogen deprivation. In breast cancer survivors, most physicians avoid HRT because of concern regarding the potential promotion of growth of occult malignant cells by estrogens, due to the estrogen dependence of breast cancer. Soy phytoestrogens are being promoted as the 'natural alternative' to HRT and have been available without restrictions for several years as nutritional supplements. In this paper, data on the complex mammary effects of phytoestrogens in epidemiological studies, in in vitro studies, as well as in in vivo studies on animal carcinogenesis are reviewed. The potential benefits and risks of phytoestrogens are analyzed, and the prescription of phytoestrogens to postmenopausal women after breast cancer and the coprescription with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen are discussed. The absence of controlled trials and technical checking of extraction and titration in these preparations on 'free sale' raise a new problem in terms of public health and justify close reasoning and a cautious attitude of physicians, as well as straight information given to women, especially after breast cancer.

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Nicola Normanno, Massimo Di Maio, Ermelinda De Maio, Antonella De Luca, Andrea de Matteis, Antonio Giordano, and Francesco Perrone

Introduction It has long been established that estrogen is involved in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma, and that it sustains the growth of breast cancer cells that express the receptor for this hormone. Indeed, approximately 70

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Elgene Lim, Gerard Tarulli, Neil Portman, Theresa E Hickey, Wayne D Tilley, and Carlo Palmieri

approximately 75% of all breast cancers. When present, ER drives neoplasia and is a bona fide therapeutic target. The underlying aim of current endocrine therapy is to either reduce ER activity or reduce receptor levels within breast cancer cells. Despite the

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John P Wiebe

as a means of decreasing the local P concentrations. PR has long been linked to the proliferative changes in the normal breast, but its role in breast cancer is unclear. Recent studies have provided evidence that P metabolites formed in breast

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Erin E Swinstead, Ville Paakinaho, and Gordon L Hager

chromatin accessibility occurs in cancers ( Denny et al . 2016 , Qu et al . 2017 ). Breast cancer is no exception, with alterations occurring in chromatin accessibility, TF action and regulation ( Jeselsohn et al . 2015 , D’Antonio et al . 2017

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Kara Britt, Alan Ashworth, and Matthew Smalley

Introduction The only factor known to consistently decrease lifetime breast cancer risk regardless of ethnicity is early childbirth ( MacMahon et al . 1970 , Henderson et al . 1974 , Kelsey et al . 1993 ). Women who have undergone a first full

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A M Lorincz and S Sukumar

Obesity and breast cancer Over 40 000 women in the USA die each year of metastatic breast cancer, for which there are currently no permanent cures. In fact, about one-half of women with metastatic disease who undergo therapeutic

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Suman Rice and Saffron A Whitehead

Introduction Breast cancer is not a disease of the modern world and its oldest recorded description was found in an Egyptian seven papyri written between 3000 and 1500 BC. Although the term ‘cancer’ did not exist at that time (the