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Mabel Ryder, Margaret Callahan, Michael A Postow, Jedd Wolchok and James A Fagin

receptors on T cells has emerged. Ipilimumab, the prototypic MAB of this class, blocks the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) on activated T cells ( Lipson & Drake 2011 ). The engagement of CTLA4 by its ligands in the B7 co-stimulatory family

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Priscilla Cukier, Fernando C Santini, Mariana Scaranti and Ana O Hoff

, Hellmann et al . 2017 ). Table 1 Immunotherapy monoclonal antibodies and their main indications. Anti-PD-1 Anti-PD-L1 Anti-CTLA4 Nivolumab Pembrolizumab Atezolizumab Durvalumab Avelumab Ipilimumab Melanoma

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Lucas Leite Cunha, Marjory Alana Marcello, Vinicius Rocha-Santos and Laura Sterian Ward

-established tumors. Interestingly, this also results in immunity against secondary exposure to tumor cells, suggesting that the memory component of immune response can be evoked by anti-CTLA-4 antibodies ( Leach et al . 1996 ). Ipilimumab Ipilimumab is a

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F Castinetti, F Albarel, F Archambeaud, J Bertherat, B Bouillet, P Buffier, C Briet, B Cariou, Ph Caron, O Chabre, Ph Chanson, C Cortet, C Do Cao, D Drui, M Haissaguerre, S Hescot, F Illouz, E Kuhn, N Lahlou, E Merlen, V Raverot, S Smati, B Verges and F Borson-Chazot

, for example, where it was shown that the appearance of this side effect during ipilimumab treatment was correlated with a better anti-tumoral response in the melanoma ( Faje et al. 2014 , Faje 2016 ). However, these results could also be biased due

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S Latteyer, V Tiedje, B Schilling and D Führer

, Sotomayor et al. 1999 ). Treatment with the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab (Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA) showed a significant benefit for overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma ( Table 1 ) ( Hodi et al. 2010 , Robert

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Melissa Gamat and Douglas G McNeel

of each cycle Safety, feasibility. Prolongation of PSA doubling time in some patients McNeel et al . (2012) T-cell checkpoint inhibitor: Ipilimumab LHRH agonist + anti-androgen Phase II Patients with recurrent prostate cancer

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Ben C Whitelaw

/lapatinib Case reports showing radiological and/or biochemical response (in ACTH and PRL tumours). Clinical trial results are pending. Bevacizumab Stable disease achieved in case reports Nivolumab and ipilimumab Dramatic response in one case

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Stephan Gasser, Lina H K Lim and Florence S G Cheung

Ipilimumab I; recruiting Anti-CTLA4 Thyroid, pancreatic Enoblituzumab (MGA271) NCTb2381314  Nivolumab II; recruiting Anti-PD1 Adrenocortical NCTb2720484  Nivolumab II; recruiting Anti-PD1 Pancreatic Ipilimumab (anti

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J Crona, F Beuschlein, K Pacak and B Skogseid

-MIBG Phase II, single arm Palliative 80 Nbib107289   131 I-MIBG Phase II, single arm Palliative 100 Nbib1850888  Nivolumab and ipilimumab Phase II, single arm Palliative 707 Nbib2834013  ONC-201 Phase II, single arm

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Atsuko Kasajima, Yuichi Ishikawa, Ayaka Iwata, Katja Steiger, Naomi Oka, Hirotaka Ishida, Akira Sakurada, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Toru Kameya, Björn Konukiewitz, Günter Klöppel, Yoshinori Okada, Hironobu Sasano and Wilko Weichert

Seelbach, and Ulrike Mühlthaler (Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany) for their excellent technical support. References Antonia SJ Lopez-Martin JA Bendell J 2016 Nivolumab alone and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in recurrent small