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Margarida M Moura, Branca M Cavaco, and Valeriano Leite

mutated (total mutated samples/total samples tested) for that particular tumor type. RAS mutations have also been detected in medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), and this subject will be further discussed in section ‘ RAS mutations in MTC

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Pierpaolo Trimboli, Ettore Seregni, Giorgio Treglia, Maria Alevizaki, and Luca Giovanella

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignancy that originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells and accounts for about 5% of thyroid cancers ( Kloos et al . 2009 ). In the majority of cases (i.e., four out of every five), this

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Lucieli Ceolin, Marta Amaro da Silveira Duval, Antônio Felippe Benini, Carla Vaz Ferreira, and Ana Luiza Maia

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant tumor originating in parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid. The main secretory product of MTC is calcitonin, a specific and highly sensitive biomarker that is produced by normal

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Libero Santarpia, George A Calin, Liana Adam, Lei Ye, Alfredo Fusco, Serena Giunti, Christina Thaller, Laura Paladini, Xinna Zhang, Camilo Jimenez, Francesco Trimarchi, Adel K El-Naggar, and Robert F Gagel

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumour thought to originate from neural crest parafollicular C-cells. Approximately 25% of MTC cases occur in the context of autosomal dominant multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome

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Mahdi Fallah, Kristina Sundquist, and Kari Hemminki

nuclear family ( Amundadottir et al . 2004 ). Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is the third most common thyroid neoplasm (3–10%) after papillary (50–80%) and follicular (10–40%) carcinomas ( Hundahl et al . 1998 , Boyle 2008 , Pacini et al . 2010

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Huy Gia Vuong, Toru Odate, Hanh T T Ngo, Thong Quang Pham, Thao T K Tran, Kunio Mochizuki, Tadao Nakazawa, Ryohei Katoh, and Tetsuo Kondo

clinicopathological features of sporadic MTCs are presented in Table 2 . Table 2 Associations of RET , RAS mutation and RET M918T mutation with the clinicopathological parameters of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clinicopathological

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Eric Y Lian, Sarah M Maritan, Jessica G Cockburn, Katayoon Kasaian, Mathieu J F Crupi, David Hurlbut, Steven J M Jones, Sam M Wiseman, and Lois M Mulligan

, Romei et al . 2016 ). Constitutive activation of RET by specific point mutations gives rise to medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a tumour of thyroid C-cells, as part of the familial cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2), and also occur

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Viktor Johanson, Håkan Ahlman, Peter Bernhardt, Svante Jansson, Lars Kölby, Fredrik Persson, Göran Stenman, Christina Swärd, Bo Wängberg, Mats Stridsberg, and Ola Nilsson

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5–10% of all thyroid cancer. Most cases are sporadic but about 25% occur in patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome ( Brauckhoff et al

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Nabahet Ameur, Ludovic Lacroix, Sophie Roucan, Véronique Roux, Sophie Broutin, Monique Talbot, Corinne Dupuy, Bernard Caillou, Martin Schlumberger, and Jean-Michel Bidart

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from thyroid C cells, a neuroendocrine cell that produces calcitonin and represents <1% of all thyroid cells ( Leboulleux et al . 2004 , Matias-Guiu et al . 2004 , Hoff & Hoff 2007 ). MTC

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Cristina Rodríguez-Antona, Judith Pallares, Cristina Montero-Conde, Lucia Inglada-Pérez, Esmeralda Castelblanco, Iñigo Landa, Susanna Leskelä, Luis J Leandro-García, Elena López-Jiménez, Rocío Letón, Alberto Cascón, Enrique Lerma, M Carmen Martin, M Carmen Carralero, Didac Mauricio, Juan Cruz Cigudosa, Xavier Matias-Guiu, and Mercedes Robledo

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular C-cells and comprises 4–10% of all thyroid cancers ( Leboulleux et al . 2004 ). About 75% of cases are sporadic, and 25% are inherited as a component of the multiple