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Jonathan M Fussey, Robin N Beaumont, Andrew R Wood, Bijay Vaidya, Joel Smith, and Jessica Tyrrell

et al. 2018 ) and the possibility of reverse causality. This difficulty can be overcome by using genetic epidemiological techniques such as Mendelian randomization (MR), which relies upon the fact that genetic variants predisposing to a certain trait

Open access

Jonathan M Fussey, Robin N Beaumont, Andrew R Wood, Bijay Vaidya, Joel Smith, and Jessica Tyrrell

conclusions of the manuscript ‘Mendelian randomization supports a causative effect of TSH on thyroid carcinoma’ published on 18 August 2020 in volume 27 part 10, pages 551–559 . As such, and with agreement from all authors, the article has now been retracted

Open access

Deborah J Thompson, Tracy A O'Mara, Dylan M Glubb, Jodie N Painter, Timothy Cheng, Elizabeth Folkerd, Deborah Doody, Joe Dennis, Penelope M Webb, for the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group (ANECS), Maggie Gorman, Lynn Martin, Shirley Hodgson, for the National Study of Endometrial Cancer Genetics Group (NSECG), Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan P Tyrer, Mel J Maranian, Per Hall, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Jingmei Li, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Thilo Dörk, Peter Hillemanns, Matthias Dürst, Ingo Runnebaum, Hui Zhao, Jeroen Depreeuw, Stefanie Schrauwen, Frederic Amant, Ellen L Goode, Brooke L Fridley, Sean C Dowdy, Stacey J Winham, Helga B Salvesen, Jone Trovik, Tormund S Njolstad, Henrica M J Werner, Katie Ashton, Tony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Emma Tham, Tao Liu, Miriam Mints, for RENDOCAS, Rodney J Scott, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Elizabeth G Holliday, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, Dale R Nyholt, Anjali K Henders, John L Hopper, Nadia Traficante, for the AOCS Group, Matthias Ruebner, Anthony J Swerdlow, Barbara Burwinkel, Hermann Brenner, Alfons Meindl, Hiltrud Brauch, Annika Lindblom, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Chang-Claude, Fergus J Couch, Graham G Giles, Vessela N Kristensen, Angela Cox, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Stig E Bojesen, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Ian Tomlinson, Mitch Dowsett, Douglas F Easton, and Amanda B Spurdle

confounding ( Fig. 1 ). If the association is causal, then variants causally associated with E 2 levels should also be associated with endometrial cancer, with a magnitude that can be predicted using a Mendelian randomization methodology ( C-Reactive Protein

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S E Bojesen, S K Kjær, E V S Høgdall, B L Thomsen, C K Høgdall, J Blaakær, A Tybjærg-Hansen, and B G Nordestgaard

GD & Ebrahim S 2004 Mendelian randomization: prospects, potentials, and limitations. International Journal of Epidemiology 33 30 –42. STATA/SE for Windows, rel. 8.2. USA: Stata Corporation 2004

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Xiaqing Xu, Meimei Si, Honggang Lou, Youyou Yan, Yunxi Liu, Hong Zhu, Xiaoe Lou, Jian Ma, Difeng Zhu, Honghai Wu, Bo Yang, Haoshu Wu, Ling Ding, and Qiaojun He

standard rodent chow and water. Mouse hepatoma H22 xenografts were established by subcutaneously inoculating 1 × 10 6 cells into db/db or C57BL/6 mice. After inoculation, db/db and C57BL/6 mice were randomized into control and treatment groups ( n  = 6

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Brahim Aissani, Kui Zhang, Arjen R Mensenkamp, Fred H Menko, and Howard W Wiener

hydratase ( FH) in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC; OMIM 150800), a rare and dominantly-transmitted Mendelian syndrome ( Alam et al . 2001 , Launonen et al . 2001 , Tomlinson et al . 2002 ) as well as in rare cases of

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Kirsten L Dennison, Nyssa Becker Samanas, Quincy Eckert Harenda, Maureen Peters Hickman, Nicole L Seiler, Lina Ding, and James D Shull

progesterone receptor, are dependent upon estrogens for survival and growth, and exhibit non-random patterns of chromosome copy number alterations that mirror somatic copy number alterations frequently observed in breast cancers ( Harvell et al . 2000

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Caterina Tiozzo, Soula Danopoulos, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sheryl Baptista, Radka Varimezova, Denise Al Alam, David Warburton, Rehan Virender, Stijn De Langhe, Antonio Di Cristofano, Saverio Bellusci, and Parviz Minoo

counterstained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The total number of E-cadherin positive cells and the number of PH3/E-cadherin positive cells in the thyroid's epithelium were scored using ten photomicrographs (40× magnification) taken at random

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Adrian F Daly, Bo Yuan, Frederic Fina, Jean-Hubert Caberg, Giampaolo Trivellin, Liliya Rostomyan, Wouter W de Herder, Luciana A Naves, Daniel Metzger, Thomas Cuny, Wolfgang Rabl, Nalini Shah, Marie-Lise Jaffrain-Rea, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Fabio R Faucz, Emilie Castermans, Isabelle Nanni-Metellus, Maya Lodish, Ammar Muhammad, Leonor Palmeira, Iulia Potorac, Giovanna Mantovani, Sebastian J Neggers, Marc Klein, Anne Barlier, Pengfei Liu, L’Houcine Ouafik, Vincent Bours, James R Lupski, Constantine A Stratakis, and Albert Beckers

ddPCR specifically uses the breakpoint as a template and only provides positive signals for the droplets sequestering at least one copy of the X chromosome with the specific XLAG syndrome duplication. Due to the random nature of partitioning in droplet

Open access

Jan P Dumanski, Chiara Rasi, Peyman Björklund, Hanna Davies, Abir S Ali, Malin Grönberg, Staffan Welin, Halfdan Sorbye, Henning Grønbæk, Janet L Cunningham, Lars A Forsberg, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Peter Stålberg, Per Hellman, and Eva Tiensuu Janson

-NET patients, we used the EpiHealth cohort, which has a very similar ancestry. The age range of EpiHealth participants is 45–75 years and the phenotypic scope of EpiHealth study is broad, including cancer. A random selection of 2500 participants from EpiHealth