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C Christofer Juhlin, Ozgur Mete, and Zubair W Baloch

thyroid pathology. It contains appropriate changes to nomenclature, grading and prognostication of thyroid proliferations based on pathologic features and molecular profile. Therefore, it is important that endocrinologists and practicing physicians who

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Guido Rindi and Frediano Inzani

this resulted in the building of a cancer nomenclature that mostly reflected the cancer’s endocrine function, usually different and site-specific. So, pheochromocytoma was named in the adrenals for tumors associated with catecholamine-driven symptoms

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S L Asa, O Casar-Borota, P Chanson, E Delgrange, P Earls, S Ezzat, A Grossman, H Ikeda, N Inoshita, N Karavitaki, M Korbonits, E R Laws Jr, M B Lopes, N Maartens, I E McCutcheon, O Mete, H Nishioka, G Raverot, F Roncaroli, W Saeger, L V Syro, A Vasiljevic, C Villa, A Wierinckx, J Trouillas, and and the attendees of 14th Meeting of the International Pituitary Pathology Club, Annecy, France, November 2016

elucidation of biomarkers that can guide personalized strategies. This revision of nomenclature is not intended to negate the classification by morphologic cell type, but instead is intended to change the classification to ‘tumor’ rather than ‘adenoma’; for

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Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Kate E Lines, Shani Avniel-Polak, Chas Bountra, and Rajesh V Thakker

exclusively involves pancreatic tumours extracted from MEN1-mice models, which will be therefore elaborated in the present review; moreover, due to the recent shifting nomenclature of ‘pituitary adenomas’ to ‘pituitary neuroendocrine neoplasms’, relevant data

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Chiara Villa, Bertrand Baussart, Guillaume Assié, Gerald Raverot, and Frederico Roncaroli

The classification of tumours of the pituitary gland has recently been revised in the 2021 5th edition World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Central Nervous System Tumours (CNS5) and 2022 5th edition WHO Classification of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumours (ENDO5). This brief review aims to appraise the most relevant changes and updates introduced in the two classifications. A new nomenclature has been introduced in CNS5 and ENDO5 to align adenohypophyseal tumours with the classification framework of neuroendocrine neoplasia. The term Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumour (PitNET) with subtype information has therefore been adopted and preferred to adenoma. Pituitary carcinoma has been replaced by metastatic PitNET. The ICD-O coding has been changed from benign to malignant in line with NETs from other organs. Histological typing and subtyping based on immunohistochemistry for lineage restricted pituitary transcription factors is regarded as the cornerstone for an accurate classification. Such approach does not fully reflect the complexity and dynamics of pituitary tumorigenesis and the variability of transcription factors expression. ENDO5 does not supported a grading and/or staging system and argues that histological typing and subtyping is more robust than proliferation rate and invasiveness to stratify tumours with low or high risk of recurrence. However, the prognostic and predictive relevance of histotype is not fully validated. Recent studies suggest the existence of clinically relevant molecular subgroups and emphasize the need of a standardized, histo-molecular integrated approach to the diagnosis of PitNETs to further our understanding of their biology and overcome the unsolved issue of grading and/or staging system.

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Sarah A Dabydeen and Priscilla A Furth

the estrogen-signaling pathway ( Table 3 ). The fifth type is derived from brother–sister matings of nude mice ( Table 4 ). Table 1 Genetically engineered mouse models that develop ER+ breast cancer Published nomenclature Genetic nomenclature

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Pedro Weslley Rosario and Gabriela Franco Mourão

. This management seems to be more harmonic with the current nomenclature (not containing the term ‘cancer’) and the nature of the lesion (not ‘malignant’) and is based on (i) the existence of well-defined diagnostic criteria, (ii) molecular signature

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Maria Teresa Valenti, Monica Mottes, Samuele Cheri, Michela Deiana, Valentina Micheletti, Elisa Cosaro, Maria Vittoria Davì, Giuseppe Francia, and Luca Dalle Carbonare

reported in accordance with the ASBMR Committee nomenclature ( Dempster et al . 2013 ). All thickness/depth results (O.Th, MAR, E.De, W.Th) were corrected for obliquity of sections by multiplying by π /4. In addition, to better describe osteoblast

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Diana E Benn, Bruce G Robinson, and Roderick J Clifton-Bligh

that were not predicted to impair protein stability ( Ricketts et al . 2010 ). Figure 2 PGL1 due to mutations in SDHD . Genotypes associated with paraganglioma syndromes. Mutations are not represented by standard nomenclature; abbreviations are used

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Pedro Weslley Rosario, Gabriela Franco Mourão, Maurício Buzelin Nunes, Marcelo Saldanha Nunes, and Maria Regina Calsolari

2016 Nomenclature revision for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paradigm shift to reduce overtreatment of indolent tumors . JAMA Oncology 2 1023 – 1029 . ( doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.0386 ) Pradeep PV 2016