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S Corbetta, V Vaira, V Guarnieri, A Scillitani, C Eller-Vainicher, S Ferrero, L Vicentini, I Chiodini, M Bisceglia, P Beck-Peccoz, S Bosari, and A Spada

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma (PaC) is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism ( Marx 2000 ). It is associated with a poor prognosis, and no curative therapies are available. PaCs occur either sporadically or in family members

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F Cetani, E Pardi, C Banti, P Collecchi, P Viacava, S Borsari, G Fanelli, A G Naccarato, F Saponaro, P Berti, P Miccoli, A Pinchera, and C Marcocci

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy and accounts for <1% of cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) ( Marcocci et al . 2008 ). Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been linked to parathyroid

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Vincenzo Condello, Filomena Cetani, Maria Denaro, Liborio Torregrossa, Elena Pardi, Paolo Piaggi, Simona Borsari, Anello Marcello Poma, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Paolo Graziano, Maria Grazia Chiofalo, Andrea Repaci, Giovanni Tallini, Francesco Boi, Gabriele Materazzi, Fulvio Basolo, and Claudio Marcocci

by a single parathyroid adenoma (PA) in about 80% of cases, the multi-glandular disease in 15–20% and parathyroid carcinoma (PC) in less than 1% ( Bilezikian et al. 2018 ). PHPT occurs in up to 90% of patients as a sporadic disease, and in the

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Elham Barazeghi, Anthony J Gill, Stan Sidhu, Olov Norlén, Roberto Dina, F Fausto Palazzo, Per Hellman, Peter Stålberg, and Gunnar Westin

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a slow-growing and rare parathyroid disease associated with highly elevated parathyroid hormone levels and hypercalcemia. PC occurs in less than 1 to <5% of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) cases

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Nancy D Perrier, Andrew Arnold, Jessica Costa-Guda, Naifa L Busaidy, Ha Nguyen, Hubert H Chuang, and Maria Luisa Brandi

Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN2019), whose main focus was on malignancy in hereditary endocrine tumor syndromes. Parathyroid carcinoma (PC), first described by Sainton & Millot (1933) , is a rare malignant neoplasm involving the parathyroid gland and one of the

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Xiang Zhang, Ya Hu, Mengyi Wang, Ronghua Zhang, PeiPei Wang, Ming Cui, Zhe Su, Xiang Gao, Quan Liao, and Yupei Zhao

Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that is typically caused by benign or malignant neoplasia. Parathyroid adenoma (PAd) is the leading cause of pHPT, while parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is a rare

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F Lumachi, M Ermani, F Marino, A Poletti, SMM Basso, M Iacobone, and G Favia

with primary hyperparathyroidism, abnormal parathyroid glands have been characterized as being hyperplastic, adenomatous or malignant, but parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an uncommon finding, accounting for only 1–2% of cases ( Arnaud 1994 , Shane

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Jessica Svedlund, Elham Barazeghi, Peter Stålberg, Per Hellman, Göran Åkerström, Peyman Björklund, and Gunnar Westin

, benign adenoma in ∼85% of cases and parathyroid hyperplasia or multiple adenomas in ∼15%, and very rarely by parathyroid carcinoma (<1%). In renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) occurs with multiple tumor development as a result of calcium

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Yulong Li, Jianhua Zhang, Poorni R Adikaram, James Welch, Bin Guan, Lee S Weinstein, Haobin Chen, and William F Simonds

identified and are presumed to cause partial or complete inactivation of this gene ( Newey et al. 2010 ). It is estimated that at least two thirds of seemingly sporadic parathyroid carcinomas harbor somatic or germline mutations in the CDC73 gene

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Filomena Cetani, Claudio Marcocci, Liborio Torregrossa, and Elena Pardi

and carcinoma, in contrast, are rarer being the latter the rarest parathyroid tumor (<1%) ( Cetani et al. 2016 , Saponaro et al. 2018 ). PHPT occurs as sporadic (90%) or as familial (10%) disease. Among the latter, multiple endocrine neoplasia