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Adam W Nelson, Wayne D Tilley, David E Neal and Jason S Carroll

Introduction Prostate cancer is the commonest, non-cutaneous cancer in men, affecting 214 per 1000 European men. It is the second commonest cause of cancer death, accounting for 15% of all male cancers in developed countries ( Heidenreich et al

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Matias Knuuttila, Arfa Mehmood, Jenni Mäki-Jouppila, Henrik Ryberg, Pekka Taimen, Juha Knaapila, Otto Ettala, Peter J Boström, Claes Ohlsson, Mikko S Venäläinen, Asta Laiho, Laura L Elo, Petra Sipilä, Sari I Mäkelä and Matti Poutanen

Introduction Androgens play a crucial role in the normal development and growth of the prostate and the growth of prostate cancer. The prostate tissue is known for the local biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is the principal

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Joanna M Day, Paul A Foster, Helena J Tutill, Fabien Schmidlin, Christopher M Sharland, Jonathan D Hargrave, Nigel Vicker, Barry V L Potter, Michael J Reed and Atul Purohit

Introduction Treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer by androgen ablation is usually initially successful, reducing primary tumour burden and increasing 5-year survival rates. Currently, androgen ablation is achieved using orchidectomy

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Valeria Coppola, Ruggero De Maria and Désirée Bonci

deregulated in tumours. Prostate cancer: a complex scenario for miR action In developed western countries, prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumour in men, and is the second highest cause of cancer mortality after lung tumours ( Gronberg

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Hira Lal Goel, Jing Li, Sophia Kogan and Lucia R Languino

Introduction Prostate cancer develops through a series of defined states: prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), high-grade PIN lesions, invasive cancer, and an androgen-independent state ( Scher & Heller 2000 , Culig & Bartsch 2006 , Dehm

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Lisa D Berman-Booty and Karen E Knudsen

Introduction Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide ( Ferlay et al . 2010 ). With >90% of prostate cancers initially diagnosed as acinar adenocarcinomas ( Fine 2012 , Humphrey 2012 ), neuroendocrine carcinomas of the

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Delila Gasi Tandefelt, Joost Boormans, Karin Hermans and Jan Trapman

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men in the USA and in other countries with a Western lifestyle ( Siegel et al . 2013 ). Almost all prostate cancers are

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Gail S Prins

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer in males and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men ( Jemal et al . 2008 ). While rates today are markedly higher than rates observed three decades ago, the most

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Mathis Grossmann and Gary Wittert

Introduction Diabetes and prostate cancer (PCa) are two major, growing health problems that affect millions of men worldwide. PCa is the most common solid organ cancer in men in the USA, Canada and Australia, and the second most common cancer in men

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Craig J Burd, Lisa M Morey and Karen E Knudsen

notably prostate cancer. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of male cancer death in most western countries, including the United States ( Denmeade & Isaacs 2002 , Jemal et al. 2006