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Tirtha K Das and Ross L Cagan

MEN2 patients. Nearly 100% of MEN2 patients develop MTC, accounting for approximately 20% of total MTC cases, and early surgical resection of the thyroid has improved survival ( Wells et al . 2013 , 2015 ). Surgery is not an option for spontaneous

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Filomena Cetani, Claudio Marcocci, Liborio Torregrossa, and Elena Pardi

, Ryhänen et al. 2017 ). Finally, there are cases in which the differential diagnosis between atypical parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma may be a major challenge also for an experienced pathologist. The macroscopic appearance at surgery is of limited help

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F Cetani, E Pardi, C Banti, P Collecchi, P Viacava, S Borsari, G Fanelli, A G Naccarato, F Saponaro, P Berti, P Miccoli, A Pinchera, and C Marcocci

Introduction Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy and accounts for <1% of cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) ( Marcocci et al . 2008 ). Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been linked to parathyroid

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C C Juhlin, A Villablanca, K Sandelin, F Haglund, J Nordenström, L Forsberg, R Bränström, T Obara, A Arnold, C Larsson, and A Höög

Parathyroid carcinoma versus parathyroid adenoma in patients with profound hypercalcemia. Surgery 101 649 –660. Mittendorf EA & McHenry CR 2005 Parathyroid carcinoma. Journal of Surgical Oncology 89 136

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Nancy D Perrier, Andrew Arnold, Jessica Costa-Guda, Naifa L Busaidy, Ha Nguyen, Hubert H Chuang, and Maria Luisa Brandi

effectiveness with parathyroid carcinoma and prospective studies on these topics would be valuable. Extent of surgery The mainstay of treatment for parathyroid carcinoma is surgery. There was expert opinion that there is no role for prophylactic

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Felix Haglund, Carl Christofer Juhlin, Taylor Brown, Mehran Ghaderi, Tiantian Liu, Adam Stenman, Andrii Dinets, Manju Prasad, Reju Korah, Dawei Xu, Tobias Carling, and Catharina Larsson

Dear Editor, The majority of parathyroid tumors are benign, and parathyroid carcinomas represent a diagnostic challenge with limited treatment options. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene and cell division cycle 73 ( CDC73 ) are major genes in

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F Lumachi, M Ermani, F Marino, A Poletti, SMM Basso, M Iacobone, and G Favia

& Kinder BK 1993 Parathyroid carcinoma: the relationship of nuclear DNA content to clinical outcome. Surgery 113 290 –296. Bocsi J , Perner F, Szucs J, Glaz E & Kopper L 1998 DNA content of parathyroid

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S Corbetta, L Vicentini, S Ferrero, A Lania, G Mantovani, D Cordella, P Beck-Peccoz, and A Spada

). Several lines of evidence suggest that both cyclin D1 and menin are strongly involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis (Rosemberg et al. 1991, Bhuyan et al. 2000 ). The overexpression of cyclin D1 protein as well as the loss of the tumor suppressor

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Yulong Li, Jianhua Zhang, Poorni R Adikaram, James Welch, Bin Guan, Lee S Weinstein, Haobin Chen, and William F Simonds

hormone (PTH), which causes primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and typically severe complications secondary to hypercalcemia. Because it is insensitive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, surgery is the only effective treatment of parathyroid cancer ( Rodrigo

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F Cetani, E Pardi, E Ambrogini, P Viacava, S Borsari, M Lemmi, L Cianferotti, P Miccoli, A Pinchera, A Arnold, and C Marcocci

adenoma is responsible for sporadic PHPT in 80–85% of cases, the remaining being caused by multiple adenomas, hyperplasia of all parathyroid glands, and rarely by carcinoma ( Marx 2000 ). On the other hand, multiglandular involvement is typically found