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Amruta Ashtekar, Danielle Huk, Alexa Magner, Krista La Perle, Xiaoli Zhang, José I Piruat, José López-Barneo, Sissy M Jhiang and Lawrence S Kirschner

to overcome the hypoxic conditions in tumors, but newer data suggest that metabolic dysfunction is itself a driver of tumorigenesis. Mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how loss of SDHD leads to thyroid tumorigenesis include (1) an increase

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Yang-Hsiang Lin, Meng-Han Wu, Ya-Hui Huang, Chau-Ting Yeh, Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Chung-Ying Tsai, Wen-Yu Chuang, Chia-Jung Yu, I-Hsiao Chung, Ching-Ying Chen and Kwang-Huei Lin

N Scoazec JY Samarut J Plateroti M 2010 Cooperation between the thyroid hormone receptor TRalpha1 and the WNT pathway in the induction of intestinal tumorigenesis . Gastroenterology 138 1863 – 1874 . ( https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2010

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Viktor Johanson, Håkan Ahlman, Peter Bernhardt, Svante Jansson, Lars Kölby, Fredrik Persson, Göran Stenman, Christina Swärd, Bo Wängberg, Mats Stridsberg and Ola Nilsson

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5–10% of all thyroid cancer. Most cases are sporadic but about 25% occur in patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome ( Brauckhoff et al

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Caterina Tiozzo, Soula Danopoulos, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sheryl Baptista, Radka Varimezova, Denise Al Alam, David Warburton, Virender Rehan, Stijn De Langhe, Antonio Di Cristofano, Saverio Bellusci and Parviz Minoo

through Nkx2.1-cre leads to thyroid tumorigenesis in a strain-dependent manner. Endocrine-Related Cancer 19 111–122 (doi:10.1530/ERC-10-0327).

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Caterina Tiozzo, Soula Danopoulos, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sheryl Baptista, Radka Varimezova, Denise Al Alam, David Warburton, Rehan Virender, Stijn De Langhe, Antonio Di Cristofano, Saverio Bellusci and Parviz Minoo

ultrasound to nodular hyperplasia (also called goiter) and neoplastic transformation ( Ezzat et al . 1994 , Rivas & Santisteban 2003 ). Recently, information on the molecular events controlling thyroid tumorigenesis has grown considerably. However, the

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Mingzhao Xing

diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypertension, inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and other diseases ( Valko et al . 2007 , Durackova 2010 ). Possible mechanisms of OS and ROS in thyroid tumorigenesis As with thyroid cancer, OS has

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Daphne R Pringle, Zhirong Yin, Audrey A Lee, Parmeet K Manchanda, Lianbo Yu, Alfred F Parlow, David Jarjoura, Krista M D La Perle and Lawrence S Kirschner

a-TpoKO tumors In order to further elucidate the pathways involved in tumorigenesis in this model, we performed microarray analysis on thyroids from 1-year-old WT ( n =8) and R1a-TpoKO ( n =8) animals. The complete list of genes ( Supplementary

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M Xing

each of the three genetic alterations alone is sufficient to cause thyroid tumorigenesis. The mutual exclusivity among these common genetic alterations in thyroid tumor may not be surprising, though, as the signaling pathways of these activating genetic

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Peng Hou, Dingxie Liu and Mingzhao Xing

over-expression of oncogenes. Consequently, aberrant alterations in gene methylation play a fundamental role in human tumorigenesis ( Jones & Baylin 2007 , Hsiao et al . 2009 , Kondo & Issa 2010 ), including thyroid tumorigenesis ( Xing 2007 b

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Jesús Morillo-Bernal, Lara P Fernández and Pilar Santisteban

tumorigenesis. In addition, an association has been described between the FOXE1 poly-A repeat region and PTC ( Bullock et al. 2012 ). These observations, together with the genetic studies associating SNPs in and near the FOXE1 locus with thyroid cancer