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Camilo Jimenez, Sasan Fazeli, and Alejandro Román-Gonzalez

oncological perspective, angiogenesis is critical for the development of cancer cells and metastatic colonization ( Folkman 1971 ). Tumor replication requires angiogenesis to supply oxygen and nutrients and eliminate toxic products. Without a blood supply, the

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Tessa Brabander, Wouter A van der Zwan, Jaap J M Teunissen, Boen L R Kam, Wouter W de Herder, Richard A Feelders, Eric P Krenning, and Dik J Kwekkeboom

important when treating patients with PRRT. The most frequently reported subacute side-effect is haematologic toxicity ( Kwekkeboom et al . 2008 , Sabet et al . 2013 , Bodei et al . 2015 ). This toxicity is mostly mild and reversible. Late severe side

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Roberta Visconti and Domenico Grieco

strategies and targets to overcome AMCD resistance and toxicity. AMCD use in prostate cancer therapy Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed and the third cause of cancer-related death in men ( Siegel et al. 2017 ). Advances in

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Murali Kesavan, Piyush Grover, Wei-sen Lam, Phillip G Claringbold, and J Harvey Turner

-term efficacy of this combination is demonstrated in our study with a median PFS of 48-months and median OS of 86-months. In the CONTROL NETs study, grade 3/4 toxicity as manifested by thrombocytopenia was 25% in the CAPTEM arm vs 8% in the PRRT control cohort

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Fulvia Daffara, Silvia De Francia, Giuseppe Reimondo, Barbara Zaggia, Emiliano Aroasio, Francesco Porpiglia, Marco Volante, Angela Termine, Francesco Di Carlo, Luigi Dogliotti, Alberto Angeli, Alfredo Berruti, and Massimo Terzolo

of adjunctive mitotane treatment, which may be questionable, given that mitotane is toxic and of complex use because of its narrow therapeutic index, the need of drug monitoring and steroid replacement ( Lee 2007 ). Subjects and methods Subjects Cases

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D Führer, A Tannapfel, O Sabri, P Lamesch, and R Paschke

In a 59-year-old patient, thyroid follicular cancer was diagnosed in two right-sided toxic thyroid nodules, which had presented clinically as unilateral thyroid autonomy. In addition, the patient had histologically proven lung metastases of thyroid cancer; however, these failed to exhibit iodine uptake and were resistant to radioiodine treatment. The functional activity of the thyroid nodules prompted us to screen for TSH receptor (TSHR) mutations, and the histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma led us to search for the PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangement and mutations in the ras genes. Each thyroid nodule harboured a different TSHR mutation (large nodule, Asp633Tyr; small nodule, Phe631Ile). Presence of both mutations in one sample suggestive of local invasion of a thyroid carcinoma could not be demonstrated, although several specimens from different nodule locations were screened. Only the wild-type TSHR sequence was identified in the histologically normal left thyroid lobe, and no genetic alterations were found in the other investigated genes. No TSHR mutations were detected in the pulmonary metastases. This is the first case report of a patient with toxic follicular thyroid carcinoma harbouring two different TSHR mutations and presenting with non-functional lung metastases.

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R C F Leonard, A Ray, L Lee, T Leonard, and P Hopwood

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Anne Kendall and Mitch Dowsett

effects has been seen with raloxifene. Such toxicity data will be an important outcome measure in the ongoing STAR trial (tamoxifen versus raloxifene for 5 years in postmenopausal women), which will be reported at the American Society of Clinical Oncology

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Jennifer A Chan, David P Ryan, Andrew X Zhu, Thomas A Abrams, Brian M Wolpin, Paige Malinowski, Eileen M Regan, Charles S Fuchs, and Matthew H Kulke

toxicity and preliminary evidence of efficacy. Treatment was continued until tumor progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Materials and methods Patient population All patients were required to be 18 years of age or older and have

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Esben Andreas Carlsen, Nicola Fazio, Dan Granberg, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Chiara Maria Grana, Wouter T Zandee, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Martin A Walter, Peter Sandor Oturai, Anja Rinke, Andrew Weaver, Andrea Frilling, Sara Gritti, Anne Kirstine Arveschoug, Amichay Meirovitz, Ulrich Knigge, and Halfdan Sorbye

metastases, (2) Ki-67 >20% and (3) treated with PRRT. Data on demographics, diagnosis, previous treatments, PRRT, outcome and toxicity were registered. SRI ( 68 Ga-somatostatin analogue positron emission tomography (PET)/computer tomography (CT) or 111 In