Breast cancer (BC) is the primary cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Patients who express the estrogen receptor (ER), which mediates the tumorigenic effects of estrogens, respond to antihormonal therapy. Loss of ER expression or acquired resistance to E2 is associated with aggressive malignant phenotypes, which lead to relapse. These BC subtypes overexpress syndecan-1 (SDC1), a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that mediates angiogenesis as well as the proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells. We showed here that the activation of ER-alpha (ERα) by estrogens induces downregulation of SDC1 expression in ER(+) MCF7 cells but not in T47D cells. Loss of ERα expression, induced by RNA interference or a selective ER downregulator, led to subsequent SDC1 overexpression. E2-dependent downregulation of SDC1 expression required de novo protein synthesis and was antagonized by treatment with BAY 11-7085, an irreversible inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation, which inhibits the activation of NFκB. Downregulation of SDC1 expression required ERα and activation of IKK, but was independent to downstream transcriptional regulators of NFκB. BAY 11-7085 prevented E2-mediated phosphorylation of ERα on Ser118, increasing its proteasomal degradation, suggesting that IKK stabilized E2-activated ERα, leading to subsequent downregulation of SDC1 expression. Our results showed that sustained ER signaling inhibits SDC1 expression. Such antagonism elucidates the inverse correlation between SDC1 and ER expression in ER(+) BC as well as the overexpression of SDC1 in hormone receptor-negative BC subtypes with the most aggressive phenotypes. These results identify SDC1 as an attractive therapeutic target for BC as well as for other endocrine-associated cancers.