Advances in paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma cell lines and xenografts

in Endocrine-Related Cancer
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands
  • 2 Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

Correspondence should be addressed to J-P Bayley: J.P.L.Bayley@lumc.nl

This review describes human and rodent-derived cell lines and xenografts developed over the last five decades that are suitable or potentially suitable models for paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma research. We outline the strengths and weaknesses of various models and emphasize the recurring theme that, despite the major challenges involved, more effort is required in the search for valid human and animal cell models of paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma, particularly those relevant to cancers carrying a mutation in one of the succinate dehydrogenase genes. Despite many setbacks, the recent development of a potentially important new model, the RS0 cell line, gives reason for optimism regarding the future of models in the paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma field. We also note that classic approaches to cell line derivation such as SV40-mediated immortalization and newer approaches such as organoid culture or iPSCs have been insufficiently explored. As many existing cell lines have been poorly characterized, we provide recommendations for reporting of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell lines, including the strong recommendation that cell lines are made widely available via the ATCC or a similar cell repository. Basic research in paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma is currently transitioning from the analysis of genetics to the analysis of disease mechanisms and the clinically exploitable vulnerabilities of tumors. A successful transition will require many more disease-relevant human and animal models to ensure continuing progress.

Abstract

This review describes human and rodent-derived cell lines and xenografts developed over the last five decades that are suitable or potentially suitable models for paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma research. We outline the strengths and weaknesses of various models and emphasize the recurring theme that, despite the major challenges involved, more effort is required in the search for valid human and animal cell models of paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma, particularly those relevant to cancers carrying a mutation in one of the succinate dehydrogenase genes. Despite many setbacks, the recent development of a potentially important new model, the RS0 cell line, gives reason for optimism regarding the future of models in the paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma field. We also note that classic approaches to cell line derivation such as SV40-mediated immortalization and newer approaches such as organoid culture or iPSCs have been insufficiently explored. As many existing cell lines have been poorly characterized, we provide recommendations for reporting of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell lines, including the strong recommendation that cell lines are made widely available via the ATCC or a similar cell repository. Basic research in paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma is currently transitioning from the analysis of genetics to the analysis of disease mechanisms and the clinically exploitable vulnerabilities of tumors. A successful transition will require many more disease-relevant human and animal models to ensure continuing progress.

Introduction

Paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma

Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors that arise mainly in the adrenal medulla or paraganglia of the head and neck, but may also develop in abdominal or thoracic paraganglia. Benign paragangliomas frequently retain the general histological morphology of normal paraganglia, and comprise several cell types of which the most predominant are the ‘chief’ or ‘chromaffin’ cells, also known as type I cells (strictly speaking ‘chromaffin’ is a misnomer for paraganglioma cells of the head and neck as the traditional potassium dichromate chromaffin reaction, based on the oxidation of stored catecholamines, is generally negative in these cells as catecholamine production is too low to produce a noticeable color shift. Nevertheless, the term is now widely used to describe all paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma tumor cells). These cells are usually arranged in rounded cell nests and typically have a relatively large cell nucleus in proportion to the pale cytoplasm. The second prominent cell type is the sustentacular cell (type II cell), with an elongated nucleus and an extended cytoplasm, surrounding a ‘nest’ of chief cells. Together these cells dominate the characteristic ‘cell ball’ structures of the paraganglion, traditionally referred to as ‘zellballen’, which are often encapsulated by a dense stroma. The characteristic appearance of normal paraganglia is frequently maintained even in very large tumors, suggesting that the chief/chromaffin tumor cell component may control the expansion of other, non-neoplastic cell types. By contrast, metastatic tumors often consist primarily of chromaffin cells. Chromaffin cells are the only neoplastic component of paragangliomas, and sustentacular cells in head and neck paragangliomas remain diploid (Douwes Dekker et al. 2004, Powers & Tischler 2020). Loss of heterozygosity and loss of SDHB are confined to chromaffin/chief cells (Douwes Dekker et al. 2003, Hensen et al. 2004, van Nederveen et al. 2009). Furthermore, the aberrant methylation found in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (Cervera et al. 2009, Letouze et al. 2013) is only present in the chief cell component (Hoekstra et al. 2015).

Genetics

Pheochromocytomas were originally associated with mutations in genes that cause syndromic diseases such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) (RET gene), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 gene) or von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL gene). By the 1990s paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas had also been recognized in non-syndromic families and the underlying genetic cause in many of these families was later shown to be a mutation in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit D (Baysal et al. 2000) or another SDH subunit genes such as SDHA, SDHB, SDHC or SDHAF2 (Niemann & Muller 2000, Astuti et al. 2001). Subsequent genetic analysis of PPGL patients has led to the identification of a heterogeneous collection of both germline and somatic variants in up to 19 genes to date (Fishbein 2019, Neumann et al. 2019). In addition to RET, VHL, NF1 and the SDH genes, suspected or confirmed PGL-associated genes now include HRAS, EPAS1 (HIF2A), FH, MDH2, IDH1, IDH2, DLST, SLC25A11, GOT2, TMEM127 and MAX. It is worth noting that most clinical PPGL cases are caused by variants in metabolism-related genes, which currently include SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, FH, MDH2, IDH1, IDH2, DLST, GOT2 and SLC25A11.

Following the pioneering work of Dahia et al. (2005), it became clear that these tumors form two distinct clusters in terms of gene expression patterns. Cluster 1 paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (mutated in SDH genes and VHL) were characterized by gene expression associated with angiogenesis, hypoxia, coordinated suppression of oxidoreductase enzymes and the reduced expression of SDHB (Dahia et al. 2005). By contrast, Cluster 2 (RET and NF1) tumors showed gene expression patterns related to translation initiation, protein synthesis and kinase signaling. RET and NF1 both share an ability to activate the RAS/RAF/MAP kinase signaling pathway and the outcomes of activated RAS signaling may determine the distinctive expression profile in these tumors. Subsequently identified germline-mutated genes associated with paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma, such as MDH2 (Cascon et al. 2015) or TMEM127 (Qin et al. 2010), also tend to associate with one or other of these clusters. It is worth noting that virtually all cell lines and pheochromocytomas identified to date in a wide variety of mouse and rat backgrounds appear to associate with cluster 2 rather than cluster 1 tumors. Why spontaneous or induced (genetically or chemically) cluster 1-related animal tumors fail to develop and why human cluster 1 tumors fail to give rise to cell lines is still not understood.

Rodent-derived cell models

In this review, we first discuss rodent-derived cell lines, followed by several cell lines derived from human sources, and then provide a brief overview of xenograft models. Cell models are listed briefly in Table 1 andare more extensively summarized in Supplementary Table 1 (see section on supplementary materials given at the end of this article).

Table 1

Cell models

SpeciesAcronymTissue of originBenign/metastatic In cell repository? Reference(s)
RatPC12Adrenal medullaNR (benign?)YesGreene & Tischler 1976
RatMAHAdrenal medulla precursor cellsBenignNoBirren & Anderson 1990
RatRAD5.2Adrenal medulla precursor cellsBenignNoEaton 2000
RatRS0/RS1/2Adrenal medullaBenignNoPowers 2020
BovineBADA.20Adrenal medulla precursor cellsBenignNoEaton 2000
Mouse?Adrenal medullaBenignNoTischler et al. 1995
MousePATH.1/PATH.2Adrenal medullaBenignNoSuri et al. 1993
Mouse?Adrenal medullaBenignCairns et al. 1997
MouseMPCAdrenal medullaNR (benign?)NoJacks et al. 1994, Powers et al. 2000, 2002, 2004
MousetsAM5DAdrenal medullaBenignNoMurata et al. 2003
MouseMTTAdrenal medullaMetastaticNoMartinova et al. 2009
MouseimCCAdrenal medullaNon-tumor cellNoLetouze et al. 2013
HumanEPG1Carotid bodyMetastaticNoStuschke et al. 1992, 1995
HumanKNAAdrenal medullaBenignNoPfragner et al. 1998
HumanKAT45Adrenal medullaBenignNoVenihaki et al. 1998
HumanPTJ64pJugulotympanicBenignNoCama et al. 2013, Florio et al. 2017
HumanhPheo1Adrenal medullaBenignNoGhayee et al. 2013

When discussing paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell culture it is important to draw a sharp distinction between the culture of these two entities and their occurrence in experimental animals. While pheochromocytomas are relatively rare in animal models, they do occur on a regular basis, both spontaneously or as a result of chemical or radiological induction in rats and mice (in fact, the toxicology literature contains important information often overlooked by researchers) and on a wide variety of genetically modified backgrounds in mice (Warren & Chute 1972, DeLellis et al. 1973, Pellegata et al. 2006, Greim et al. 2009). Paragangliomas on the other hand, defined here as non-adrenal tumors originating in any paraganglia, are relatively rare in rats and mice (van Zwieten et al. 1979, Hall et al. 1987, Pirak et al. 1988, Li et al. 2013, Powers et al. 2020) and the systematic development of these tumors has only been reported in B6/CD1 B-Raf+/LSLV600E mice, occurring exclusively on an F1 hybrid B6/CD1 background (Urosevic et al. 2011).

The proper definition of a cell line is a ‘cell population derived from a primary culture at the first sub-culture’ (McAteer 2002). However, in common parlance, many scientists use the term to describe continuous or immortal cell lines and many official sources, such as the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms, also adhere to this essentially inaccurate definition. When describing a cell line it is therefore important to accurately define its growth characteristics.

PC12

The study that indisputably established the field of pheochromocytoma cell culture resulted from a collaboration between Lloyd A Greene and Arthur S Tischler at Harvard Medical School. In the resulting paper, published in 1976, Greene and Tischler described PC12, a noradrenergic clonal line originating from rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells derived from a solid tumor that arose in an irradiated parabiotic rat (Warren & Chute 1972) and was passaged subcutaneously in New England Deaconess Hospital strain white rats (Greene & Tischler 1976).

A primary characteristic of this cell line, which has gone on to form a mainstay of neurological research worldwide, is its ability to develop neurites similar to those of sympathetic neurons upon exposure to NGF. Removal of NGF leads to the degeneration of neurites and resumption of cell division. PC12 cells also exhibit dense core chromaffin-like granules and they synthesize and store the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine (Greene & Tischler 1976).

The manner in which this cell line was established provided a model for all subsequent efforts to propagate relatively pure paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma cells in that Greene and Tischler recognized that newly dissociated pheochromocytoma cells adhere poorly to plastic culture dishes. Cells were initially plated on plastic tissue culture dishes. The next day, lightly-adherent pheochromocytoma cells were mechanically (rather than enzymatically) dislodged using forceful aspiration with a Pasteur pipette and moved to culture dishes coated with collagen. After a number of passages on collagen-coated dishes, cells were again passaged to plastic dishes. PC12 cells are now available from a wide range of cell repositories and have been used in a very broad range of studies not only related to adrenal function and catecholamine production, but also in neuronal differentiation and other aspects of neurological development and function. These cells still largely maintain the phenotype and morphology of chromaffin cells, despite decades in culture, and can be a useful control when culturing primary tumor cells (Fig. 1). In addition to their widespread use in 2D cell culture, PC12 cells have also been used to produce mouse xenografts for a wide variety of purposes, including the study of malignant behavior of pheochromocytomas (Zielke et al. 1998), the efficacy of 131IMIBG targeted radiotherapy (Rutgers et al. 2000) and the efficacy of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib (Denorme et al. 2014). Interestingly, these latter two studies provided convincing evidence of the efficacy of therapeutic approaches which was not fully reflected in later clinical studies. Neither 131IMIBG (Pryma et al. 2019) nor sunitinib (O’Kane et al. 2019) therapy produced the clinical improvements suggested by the outcomes in this model system, indicating that more relevant clinical models may be required.

Figure 1
Figure 1

(A) Rat PC12 cells in culture (hematoxylin, 200x) show a characteristic primitive or partially differentiated chromaffin morphology, mainly evident in the high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio, the compact appearance of the cells and the frequent appearance of short neurites when adherent to plastic. (B) PC12 cells (200x) show strong expression of the synaptophysin protein (anti-synaptophysin antibody, LEICA NCL-L-SYNAP-299). (C) Synaptophysin protein expression in primary chromaffin cells of a pheochromocytoma (4-week culture, 400x) or (D) a carotid body tumor (16-month culture, 400x) is broadly similar to PC12 cells. Chromaffin cells in short-term primary cultures also frequently display more differentiated characteristics (C, inset, 200x).

Citation: Endocrine-Related Cancer 27, 12; 10.1530/ERC-19-0434

MPC/MTT model system

MPC (mouse pheochromocytoma cells) and the later derived MTT (mouse tumor tissue) cells, developed in the labs of Arthur Tischler and Karel Pacak, respectively, were derived from pheochromocytomas arising in the adrenal medulla of the Nf1 knockout mouse originally described by Tyler Jacks in 1994 (Jacks et al. 1994, Tischler et al. 1995, Powers et al. 2000, Martiniova et al. 2009). The NF1 gene encodes neurofibromin, a GTPase that plays a role in negatively regulating the RAS/MAPK pathway. Although neurofibromin is widely expressed, defects in NF1 disrupt cell growth and neural development in particular. The resulting condition in humans, neurofibromatosis type 1, is primarily characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas, café au lait spots, neurofibromas, optic nerve gliomas and various skeletal defects. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are also present in up to 7.7% of NF1 syndrome cases (Kepenekian et al. 2016) but head and neck paragangliomas have never been reported.

The designation ‘MPC’ covers at least six cell lines, each derived from an independent adrenal tumor, but the most studied is the 4/30/PRR cell line. Martinova et al. used this cell line to develop a more aggressive line, referred to as MTT (mouse tumor tissue), by a serial passage in nude mice (Martiniova et al. 2009). Compared to the progenitor 4/30/PRR MPC pheochromocytoma cell line, MTT produces greater liver infiltration, referred to as ‘hepatic metastases’ by the authors (100 vs 4–20 lesions), shows faster development of these lesions (3 vs 4–5 weeks), and mice show decreased median survival (median 25 days vs median 68 days for MPC).

MPC and MTT

Heterozygous animals of the Nf1 knockout mouse strain used to produce MPC cells are viable and develop a variety of tumors similar although not identical to human NF1 syndrome. One difference is the higher frequency, at 18%, of adrenal pheochromocytomas in this model (Tischler et al. 1995). Tumors in these mice arose on an F1 hybrid inbred genetic background, following the crossing of heterozygous (Nf1+/Nf1n31) 129SV males with C57BL/6 females, somewhat reminiscent of F1 hybrid B6/CD1 B-Raf+/LSLV600E mice (Urosevic et al. 2011). To aid derivation of cell lines from Nf1 tumors, Powers et al. used 4 Gy gamma irradiation to accelerate the occurrence of adrenal pheochromocytomas, and five of the six cell lines eventually established were derived from irradiated mice (Powers et al. 2000).

Similarly to the procedure used in the establishment of PC12 cells, during the establishment of MPC Tischler et al. transferred weakly attached cells to replicate dishes with and without a collagen coating. Cell proliferation and identity were determined by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), followed by multiple rounds of differential plating and detachment to eliminate fibroblasts and other possible contaminating cells, followed by serial passage by trypsinization. Characterization of the cell lines showed the expected morphologies of both primitive and more differentiated chromaffin cells, and four of the six cell lines expressed phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme that converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. Numerous dense core vesicles consistent with both epinephrine and norepinephrine production were visible on electron microscopy and most cell lines produced epinephrine.

MPC cells strongly express the receptor tyrosine kinase, Ret, and the GDNF receptor, GFRalpha1 (Powers et al. 2002). This was unexpected because both of these receptors are normally limited to developmental stages, perhaps suggesting that these tumors arise in tissues arrested at an early developmental stage.

In addition, MPC cell lines show variable patterns of chromosomal gain and loss, with either loss or gain of chromosome 4 (orthologous to human chromosome 1p) being equally common, and overall chromosomal instability, with both hypodiploid and hyperdiploid near tetraploid patterns present (Powers et al. 2005). Microarray gene expression patterns showed a clear distinction between normal adrenal medulla and MPC samples, but also between MPC tumor lines individually (Powers et al. 2007). In addition to Ret and GFRalpha1, MPC cell lines express many developmentally regulated genes with a role in the CNS and peripheral nervous system, and nearly 20% of overexpressed genes were reportedly involved in early neural development, consistent with the interesting idea that pheochromocytomas develop from neural progenitors that do not normally persist beyond early development.

These cell lines were further characterized in a paper by Ohta et al. (2008) in which the authors compared the cultured 4/30/PRR MPC cell line to tumors arising after subcutaneous and intravenous injection of the cells into nude mice. Subcutaneous injection produced local tumors in all mice, confirming the ongoing tumorigenic potential of these pheochromocytoma cells, while intravenous injection resulted in hepatic infiltration. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed significantly lower expression of five genes (Metap2, Reck, S100a4, Timp2, and Timp3) in hepatic infiltrates compared to subcutaneous tumors and cultured MPC cells.

Martinova et al. subsequently used the MPC cell line 4/30/PRR to develop a more aggressive line, referred to as MTT (mouse tumor tissue), by serial passage in nude mice (Martiniova et al. 2009). After determining the optimal conditions for MPC tumor development with the maintenance of a pheochromocytoma-like phenotype, Martinova et al. studied in vitro gene expression in MTT vs MPC cell lines. Of 338 genes differentially expressed between the two cell lines, 47 were also differentially expressed in benign vs malignant human pheochromocytomas. Interestingly, the five metastasis-related genes identified by Ohta et al. were apparently not found in this comparison. Seven of the 47 genes were then selected for further validation due to their association with the same biological network. However, when these seven genes (MMP14, FOS1, FRK, GATA2, KRT8, MMP2, and NTS1) were cross-validated in an independent set of human metastatic and benign pheochromocytomas they failed to show comparable differences in expression.

Experimental studies

The MPC and MTT mouse cell lines have formed the basis of a variety of studies, including the investigation of PI3K/AKT, mTORC1 and RAS/RAF/ERK signaling (Nolting et al. 2012), the action of lovastatin and 13-cisretinoic acid (Nolting et al. 2014), evaluation of the topoisomerase I inhibitor, LMP-400 (Schovanek et al. 2015), and the patterns and reproducibility of metastatic spread (Ullrich et al. 2018).

Although paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma show few signs of an innate anti-tumor response and little potential for modern immunotherapies based on somatic mutations and tumor neoantigens (Wood et al. 2018), two groups have used MPC/MTT-based models to explore possible alternative immunotherapeutic strategies. Papewalis et al. investigated the utility of chromogranin A (CgA), a widely used marker protein for neuroendocrine tumors, as a specific target in a mouse model of pheochromocytoma (Papewalis et al. 2011). Caisova et al. opted to explore the enhancement of innate immunity-mediated antitumor responses as an anti-pheochromocytoma strategy (Caisova et al. 2019). Although paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma may show less potential for modern immunotherapy than many other cancer types, the above papers perhaps indicate that in the absence of other potent treatment options these strategies may be worth exploring.

MTT-Sdhb

MTT has also been used recently in conjunction with shRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of Sdhb (D’Antongiovanni et al. 2017, Richter et al. 2018). This strategy effectively combines aspects of cluster 1 and cluster 2 tumors, together with an unknown genetic contribution from the original irradiation of the MPC cell line and other poorly understood characteristics of that cell line, particularly the continued expression of neurofibromin. Sdhb knockdown in these cells led to an approximately 60% reduction in Sdhb expression, so these cells are actually closer in phenotype to a human heterozygous carrier of an SDHB mutation than to an SDHB-negative tumor. Nevertheless, studies using this model have produced interesting results and show certain physiological correlates with SDH-mutated tumors. The Manelli–Rapizzi group in Florence has shown that Sdhb knockdown spheroid cultures (MTT cells grown in low-attachment conditions) develop neurites reminiscent of human paraganglioma–pheochromocytomas cells in culture and exhibit markedly different migration patterns compared to spheroids without Sdhb knockdown. In addition, these investigators identified a role for exogenous, fibroblast-derived lactate in modulating the motility of Sdhb knockdown cells.

Relevance of MPC/MTT

Overall, the MPC/MTT cell lines and their use in mouse models represent the most relevant pheochromocytoma model system currently available. It has been claimed that an MPC-based model ‘provides an appropriate model for pre-clinical investigations on metastatic PPGLs’ (Ullrich et al. 2018). Although we agree that better alternatives were not yet available at the time, it is important not to lose sight of the serious shortcomings of this model, especially regarding SDHB-related metastatic PPGLs. If a paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma once metastasized is no longer dependent on the initiating mutation, Ullrich et al. may well be correct. However, if the initiating genetic insult and the tissue of origin (thoracic or abdominal extra-adrenal tissues) are important factors in metastatic behavior, and more importantly in responses to possible therapeutics, this model may be less relevant to the study of most metastatic tumors. We know that a non-adrenal origin and SDHB mutations predispose to metastatic paraganglioma. Neither of these preconditions are a component of any MPC-based model. Equally, a whole range of rodent models develop adrenal pheochromocytomas including c-Mos transgenics (Schulz et al. 1992), RET Met918 transgenics (Smith-Hicks et al. 2000), Cdkn1b-mutated Sprague–Dawley rats (Pellegata et al. 2006), Rb1/Trp53 dual knockouts (Tonks et al. 2010), ceramide synthase 2 knockout mice (Park et al. 2015), ErbB2 transgenics that develop bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas (Lai et al. 2007), connexin 32 knockouts (King & Lampe 2004), PTEN knockouts (Korpershoek et al. 2009) that develop metastatic pheochromocytoma, and B-Raf transgenics that develop both adrenal pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (Urosevic et al. 2011). None of these rodent models have been used to derive cell lines, even though they might arguably be as relevant as the MPC/MTT cell lines, perhaps even more so in the case of B-raf which is the only animal model that develops extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and is, therefore, a potentially important model for SDHB-related paraganglioma as we know that tumor location is a major factor in disease behavior.

The relevance of MPC/MTT cell lines is a question that will need to be answered before the therapeutic strategies investigated in these models, which could potentially have negative consequences for patients, can move to clinical trials. It is also worth reiterating that the relatively aggressive and genetically ill-defined Nf1 mouse-derived MPC/MTT cell model has obvious limitations in terms of relevance to human SDH-associated tumors. Better models are needed, particularly human-derived cell models and models demonstrably based on SDH mutations. Only in comparison to these new models will we be able to accurately assess the strengths and weaknesses of the MPC/MTT system.

RS0 cell line

Very recently an interesting and potentially important model was reported, again from the Tischler/Powers lab (Powers et al. 2020). Due to the many challenges facing the use of mice in pheochromocytoma research, Tischler and Powers chose to use a rat xenograft model with SDH-deficient pheochromocytoma as a stepping stone for cell line development. The basis of the model was a heterozygous knockout of the rat Sdhb gene using the now defunct TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nuclease) technique in Sprague–Dawley rats. Of the rat mutants obtained, a 13-bp deletion in exon 1 of Sdhb was chosen for further study and animals carrying this mutation were then exposed to 5 Gray of gamma irradiation 1 week postnatally, an approach successfully used in the development of the rat PC12 (Greene & Tischler 1976) and mouse MPC cell lines (Powers et al. 2000). Upon necropsy, small macroscopic pheochromocytomas of around 0.3 to 0.6 cm were found in three irradiated and one non-irradiated rat. One irradiated rat even developed a carotid body paraganglioma, an extremely rare tumor in rats. In addition, multiple microscopic lesions were found in the adrenal medulla of a number of other animals. Interestingly, Tischler and Powers used a similar approach in Sdhb+/− mice from the Maher lab (Tishler AS & Powers JF, unpublished observations) but even though four tumors were found in 54 irradiated Sdhb+/− or WT mice, all tumors were Sdh-positive and none gave rise to cell lines.

The pheochromocytomas from the rat RS0 model were then used to establish xenografts in NSG mice by subcutaneously injecting tissue from five apparently viable PCs, which resulted in two distinct, serially transplantable, PC xenograft lines designated RS0 (Sdhb+/−) and RS1/2 (Sdhb+/+). Histologically, RS0 xenografts exhibit a well-defined ‘Zellballen’ architecture, stain negative for SDHB protein, and closely resemble human paragangliomas, while RS1/2 shows a more diffuse growth pattern. The ultrastructural features of RS0 are also somewhat reminiscent of human SDH-deficient tumors, with relatively sparse secretory granules and cytoplasmic vacuoles, but the typical mitochondrial swelling and degeneration found in many human tumors are absent. To explain this difference the authors cited data suggesting that rodent Sdh-null cells may be less bioenergetically compromised than cells from other species, an explanation that might very well underlie the relative resistance of rodent cells to induction of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

To generate primary cell cultures, the RS0 and RS1/2 tumors were harvested, minced, dissociated in collagenase/trypsin and used to establish two cell lines, designated as RS0 and RS1/2, respectively, which were subsequently characterized by double immunocytochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and BrdU.

An important and innovative aspect of this study was the cell culture approach used to establish cell lines. In preliminary studies, neither xenograft model yielded a cell line when cultured in routine RPMI culture medium (10% horse serum/5% fetal bovine serum) under a standard 95% air/5% CO2 atmosphere, with RS0 cells dying at around 2 weeks while RS1/2 cells slowly dwindled over many months. The situation improved with culture in 5% O2, perhaps indicating hypersensitivity to O2 (Walker et al. 2006), but changing to a low-to-absent serum medium together with stem cell-promoting supplements finally allowed RS0 cells to proliferate as a continuous cell line on uncoated plastic culture dishes, appearing as free-floating spheres with an approximately 14-day doubling time.

In terms of metabolite profile, SDH deficiency in RS0 xenografts was accompanied by high levels of succinate and lactate accumulation, in contrast to RS1/2 and adrenal medulla. In vivo 13C-glucose labeling indicated that pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) showed approximately equal activity, consistent with previous studies that found increased utilization of the anaplerotic pathway catalyzed by PC in Sdh-deficient mouse cell lines (Lussey-Lepoutre et al. 2015). The catecholamine profile of RS0 xenografts was reminiscent of some SDH-deficient human paragangliomas, predominantly producing dopamine, with low levels of norepinephrine and undetectable epinephrine.

Transcriptome analysis of RS0 xenografts showed a high expression of markers associated with the Hif2a regulatory network and with hereditary SDHB mutations. RNAseq also confirmed the almost complete loss of Sdhb mRNA in RS0 xenografts. Comparative analysis of TCGA study data, which defines four tumor subgroups including a kinase signaling, a pseudohypoxia, a WNT-altered and a cortical admixture subtype (Fishbein et al. 2017), together with RNAseq data from rat samples showed that all three (rat adrenal medulla, RS0 and RS1/2) clustered with the human pseudohypoxic cluster. The RS0 sample might have been expected to cluster differently from the other Sdhb-positive rat samples, but perhaps further analysis will provide greater insight into differences in gene expression between these samples.

This model was developed using an innovative combination of methods, and in addition to basic protein and immunohistochemical characterization, was subsequently characterized at the genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic level. Importantly, the strategies used to derive the RS0 cell line may be broadly applicable to other, including human, SDH-deficient models. The RS0 model is not an exact replica of a human SDHB tumor, as the likely metabolic and genetic differences in rodent cells represent one intrinsic limitation. The dependence on irradiation to generate this model also introduces undefined but possibly crucial factors into the model that need to be further characterized. Although it is reassuring to see the loss of Sdhb in the RS0 xenograft/cell line, it remains possible that this is a bystander effect. In order to properly validate the model, complementation with WT Sdhb followed by a study of at least the growth and invasive properties of the cell line both in vitro and in vivo will be necessary. Clearly, any model will have limitations but these limitations need to be clearly defined by the proponents of a model and to be fully understood by those using the model. Based on its current characterization, the RS0 cell line appears to be the closest model to SDHB-mutated human pheochromocytoma now available and as such appears to be by far the most valid model currently available. In view of the significance of metabolic abnormalities to the wider cancer research community, eventually making this model available via a cell repository is recommended.

Other mouse-derived models

Another mouse cell model, dubbed ‘immortalized mouse chromaffin cells’ (imCC), was derived from an Sdhb knockout mouse (129S2/SvPas; MGI:5521531) (Letouze et al. 2013). Taking advantage of genetically modified mice carrying loxP recombination sites flanking endogenous mouse Sdhb exon 2, Letouze et al. generated Sdhblox/lox mice and then isolated mouse chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla of these mice. These mice did not develop pheochromocytomas or any other tumors. These cells, expressing normal levels of Sdhb, were then put into long-term culture but remained quiescent. However, after 6 months some cultures showed signs of growth and cells were then isolated and transduced with a Cre-recombinase expressing adenovirus, followed by limiting dilution cloning to obtain homozygous Sdhb null clonal cell lines. These cell lines, therefore, represent the first bona fide complete knockout model system of Sdhb.

The derived cells were reportedly deficient for SDHB protein and showed loss of Sdh/succinate cytochrome c reductase (SCCR) activity, accompanied by high levels of intracellular and secreted succinate. Letouze et al. also found other established characteristics of Sdhb loss in imCC, including elevated expression and nuclear translocation of HIF2a and a hypermethylation phenotype. The cells were then used to explore phenotypic behaviors including methylation-related modification of cell migration (Letouze et al. 2013).

This interesting model is accompanied by several important caveats. First, the cells from which Sdhb was deleted reportedly first underwent ‘spontaneous immortalization’, a phenomenon the authors made no effort to investigate. Secondly, Letouze et al. referred to these cell lines as mouse ‘chromaffin cells’ but presented no evidence to unequivocally establish chromaffin origin. Many other cell types are present in the mouse adrenal medulla besides chromaffin cells. Furthermore, imCCs appear in the available illustrations to exhibit a mesenchymal morphology, a characteristic acknowledged by Loriot et al. (2015). Human chromaffin cells in culture that express accepted markers such as chromogranin A, tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptophysin tend not have a mesenchymal appearance (Fig. 1). In our experience, cells of mesenchymal appearance are invariably negative for protein markers characteristic of chromaffin cells, suggesting that imCC cells may not be mature chromaffin cells. In light of the potential value of these cells as an Sdhb knockout model, the poor phenotypic characterization and lack of clear verification of the chromaffin status of these cells complicates the interpretation of any data obtained using these cells (Lussey-Lepoutre et al. 2015, Kluckova et al. 2020).

Nevertheless, imCCs were recently used together with MPC/MTT and primary pheochromocytoma tumor cultures to assess the efficacy of commonly used drug combinations. Fankhauser et al. showed that the PI3Ka inhibitor BYL719 and the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus were effective in decreasing MPC/MTT and imCC cell viability at clinically relevant doses (Fankhauser et al. 2019). Despite the caveats attached to these models as discussed above, and the problem that primary pheochromocytoma cultures have an unknown vitality, complicating interpretation of any results, the comprehensive approach applied in this study was probably the best available at the time. It will be interesting to see if and how the moderately positive results of this study translate to a clinical setting.

Immortalized rodent cell models

As chromaffin cells have long been known to show little or no proliferation in vitro, one avenue to obtaining sufficient cells for study has been immortalization using viral oncogenes. An early attempt was described in 1990 by Birren and Anderson, in which these investigators derived the rat adrenal cell line, MAH, from a progenitor cell of the neural crest-derived sympathoadrenal lineage using a v-myc-containing retrovirus. These cells reportedly retained many of the properties of normal progenitor cells. Derived cells showed typical chromaffin cell morphology in culture and expressed high levels of TH, neurofilament protein, NCAM, and Thy-l, but lacked PNMT expression and showed no evidence of epinephrine production (Birren & Anderson 1990). These cells have mainly been used to study hypoxia in the chromaffin cell lineage (Nurse et al. 2009) and have not yet found an application as a model for study of tumorigenesis, although they might potentially be useful in the study of the hypothesis that tumors arise from cells arrested at an early development stage (Devilee et al. 2002, Powers et al. 2002) or that have escaped developmental culling (Lee et al. 2005).

The potent oncogene SV40 large T antigen (Tag), or a temperature-sensitive variant (tsTag) (Cairns et al. 1997), has frequently been used to immortalize mostly non-cancerous cell types. Expression of the WT large T protein simultaneously inactivates pRB and p53, leading to a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, inhibition of apoptosis and obstruction of differentiation (Jha et al. 1998). The temperature-sensitive variant, tsTag, permits cell proliferation at 32–33°C but supposedly arrests proliferation and allows differentiation at 38–39°C, although the reliability of temperature shift-dependent cell cycle inhibition may be poor in some systems (Eaton & Duplan 2004, May et al. 2005).

SV40 immortalized cell lines could potentially serve as useful models in paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma research. The native phenotype of a parental cell line is often preserved in SV40-immortalized cell lines (Noonan et al. 1976, Katakura et al. 1998, Roberts et al. 2015, Furuya et al. 2017, Selt et al. 2017), and rat and bovine chromaffin cells transformed with SV-40 continue to show primary chromaffin cell markers (Eaton et al. 2000), a catecholaminergic phenotype, normal proliferation and contact inhibition (Eaton & Duplan 2004). However, careful characterization of possible changes in phenotype is a prerequisite of any reliable model, and a tightly controllable inducible system such as Tet-On seems preferable in the case of relatively indolent paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma cells.

SV40 has been successfully used to generate adrenal tumors in mice based on a TH-Tag transgene with adrenal-specific expression driven by 5’ flanking sequences from the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene (Suri et al. 1993). These tumors were then used to derive the cell lines PATH.1 and PATH.2 (peripheral adrenergic TH-expressing) which could be passaged weekly for at least 2 years. These cell lines appeared relatively stable, both expressing variable levels of TH, dopamine and norepinephrine, and exhibited the classic morphology of chromaffin cells in culture, with clusters of rounded cells showing large nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. It is unclear why these cells received no further attention beyond initial publications. They are still be in existence, however, and possibly available via authors of the paper.

Using a similar approach to Suri et al., Murata et al. reported the establishment of the clonal cell line, tsAM5D, from adrenal tumors that developed in mice expressing the tsSV40T transgene under control of the 5’-flanking promoter region of the human TH gene (Murata et al. 2003). Around 80% of mice developed adrenal tumors by 5–10 months of age, and the derived cell line tsAM5D showed morphology consistent with chromaffin cells and expressed mRNAs for TH, AADC, and chromogranins A and B, but little or no DBH or PNMT. Cells were dopaminergic, without expression of L-DOPA, norepinephrine or epinephrine. This cell line has primarily been used to study neuronal differentiation of chromaffin cells.

Transgenic mouse lines expressing SV40 tsTag driven by the promoter-enhancer region of GATA-1 somewhat surprisingly developed large uni- of bilateral adrenal tumors (Cairns et al. 1997). These tumors appeared to be poorly differentiated but yielded tumor cell lines that expressed chromogranins A and B, neurofilament protein (NF 160kd) and low norepinephrine levels. However, epinephrine was undetectable. These cell lines were apparently not further described in subsequent studies.

To date, none of the above cell lines have been utilized in published paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma research, although they may very well be worth exploring. One obvious criticism is the lack or poor quality of transcriptional control in all of the above systems. The subsequent development of the Tet On system based on the transactivator rtTA (reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator), allowing tight control of gene activity by addition or removal of doxycycline (Gossen et al. 1995), has been shown to offer much better control of cell proliferation compared to the temperature-sensitive SV40 variant (May et al. 2005). More up-to-date SV40/viral chromaffin cell systems based on rtTA have not yet been described.

Another drawback of SV40 in the context of paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma research is that in some circumstances it may independently induce transformation, probably based on the inactivation of pRB and p53 (Tonks et al. 2010). Continued expression of SV40 in a cell system may therefore preclude unclouded analysis of another gene of interest, but a Tet-On system and/or use of a different oncogene would likely avoid this problem.

Despite the possible disadvantages of oncogene-mediated immortalization, human chromaffin tumor cells steadfastly refuse to proliferate in culture, so the induction of proliferation by v-myc, large T or a similar approach, ideally driven by an inducible construct, remains an option that cannot be ignored.

Human cell lines

In contrast to diverse attempts, of varying success, to culture pheochromocytomas from either experimental animals or from human tumors, reports of paraganglioma cell culture are extremely sparse. Perhaps the earliest report of paraganglioma tissue culture is that of Costero & Chevez (1962), in which these authors described morphological aspects of the culture of two carotid body tumors. This was followed by a description by Gullotta & Helpap (1976) of the culture of three cases of extra-adrenal paragangliomas, including one carotid body tumor, in which little cell proliferation was observed. In 1981, Tischler et al. published the last report on the culture of exclusively paraganglioma cells (Tischler et al. 1981).

Paraganglioma

While all cell models for paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma discussed so far originated from rodents, there have been several published attempts to develop models from cultured human tumors. A human paraganglioma cell line was reported in the early 1990s, denoted as EPG1 (Stuschke et al. 1992, Stuschke et al. 1995), which was derived from a subcutaneous metastasis of a malignant carotid body paraganglioma. This cell line was included in various radiographic studies and was used to generate xenografts in nude mice (Budach et al. 1994). EPG1 was established from a tumor biopsy using standard methods and subsequently characterized on the basis of HLA class 1, fibronectin and vimentin expression (positive) and the expression of LDH isoenzymes, none of which clearly establishes cellular identity. Little further description was provided beyond its characteristically slow growth pattern both in vitro and in vivo.

Another attempt to establish a human paraganglioma cell line from SDH-mutated tumors has been described by Cama et al., in which these authors cultured tissue from several tumors, including mainly jugulotympanic paragangliomas (Cama et al. 2013, Florio et al. 2017). These cell lines were first described in the course of a functional study and were used in ensuing experiments without meaningful validation of their identity or primary characteristics. When these cultures presumably ceased replication they were immortalized using retroviral transduction with hTERT and SV40 large T. There was no subsequent attempt to describe or validate this procedure with respect to the characteristics of derived cells compared to the original tumors. In light of risks to phenotypic integrity following retroviral transduction, this is a major oversight. Inspection of figures depicting morphology and immunohistochemistry results for these cell lines does not suggest that these cells are of neuroendocrine origin.

Pheochromocytoma

In the late 1990s, two groups reported the establishment of human pheochromocytoma cell lines, termed KNA and KAT45, respectively (Pfragner et al. 1998, Venihaki et al. 1998). Both cell lines were derived from sporadic pheochromocytomas and were clearly bona fide chromaffin cells, showing a close morphological resemblance to PC12 cells (Pfragner et al. 1998) (Fig. 1), with supporting evidence based on the production of catecholamines (Venihaki et al. 1998) or the expression of markers including chromogranin A, human neurofilament protein, S100 and NSE (Pfragner et al. 1998). However, nothing has been heard of these cell lines since, so they presumably failed to maintain proliferation at some point and had to be abandoned. The original authors have not responded to requests for further information.

More recently, Ghayee et al. reported the establishment of a cell line referred to as a ‘progenitor’ (Ghayee et al. 2013). Designated hPheo1, this cell line was derived from a sporadic adrenal pheochromocytoma and immortalized using hTERT. Following the use of a neuronal differentiation regime consisting of BMP4, NGF and dexamethasone, the cell culture showed expression of markers including chromogranin A, PNMT and NCAM1 (CD56), but without significant expression of enzymes other than PNMT involved in catecholamine synthesis. A similar differentiation treatment can reportedly produce ‘sympathoadrenal progenitors’ from human pluripotent stem cells (Abu-Bonsrah et al. 2018), suggesting that while hPheo1 cells have certain neuroendocrine properties, it is not clear that these properties are derived from cells found in the original tumor. The morphological appearance of the cells also suggests that they are not primitive or differentiated chromaffin tumor cells but more closely resemble cells of mesenchymal origin. In addition, hPheo1 cells exhibited a small chromosome 9p deletion resulting in loss of the p16 tumor suppressor protein, but no other cytogenetic changes. By contrast, the original tumor did not carry a 9p deletion but instead showed a range of cytogenetic changes affecting chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 11, and 17 that were not found in the hPheo1 cell line. These discrepancies led Ghayee et al. to propose that the hPheo1 line arose from a ‘subclonal population of progenitor tumor cells’ (Ghayee et al. 2013). Microarray expression analysis of hPheo1 cells further showed that they grouped together with the tumor and normal adrenal medulla, and were distinct from fibroblasts. However, it is not clear whether this grouping was the result of in vitro treatment with BMP4, NGF, and dexamethasone. Taken together, the data presented suggest hPheo1 did not originate from a differentiated neuroendocrine tumor cell but from another cell type present in the tumor, possibly even of non-neuroendocrine origin. Whether this cell originally derived from a ‘population of progenitor tumor cells’ therefore remains purely speculative. A particularly conspicuous aspect of the study by Ghayee et al. was the extent, clarity and openness of characterization, a manner of presentation that might reasonably be expected of all reports of new paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma cell lines.

As the above summary of attempts to develop human cell lines from paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas attests, the challenge of a human tumor-derived cell line of chromaffin origin has yet to be met. Discussion of this topic with researchers at any dedicated paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma congress will yield numerous anecdotes of fruitless efforts to culture these tumors. Nevertheless, closer questioning and inspection of the literature reveals that concerted efforts in this direction have been largely confined to a few dedicated enthusiasts. Although unsuccessful to date, an increasingly pressing need and new culture techniques perhaps suggest that the ambition of a human paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma cell line is still worth pursuing.

Human paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma mouse xenografts

In addition to the PC12-derived xenografts already discussed, several other cell lines and primary tumors have been used to produce xenografts. The human paraganglioma-derived EPG1 cell line was also used to establish xenografts in nude mice (Budach et al. 1993), which were subsequently used in radiographic studies to establish the tumor control dose in a comparative study together with other tumor xenografts. EPG1 xenografts were found to be relatively radio-resistant.

As paragangliomas in VHL patients are extremely rare, a highly unusual paraganglioma xenograft model (Gross et al. 1999) was based on a tumor obtained from a patient with VHL type 2A (p.Val166Phe pathogenic missense variant). These xenografts were established using paraganglioma tissue fragments subcutaneously transplanted in BALB/c nude mice. Tumors appeared by approximately 7 months in around 20% of the mice, and tissue fragments obtained from the tumor-bearing mice could be secondarily transplanted. These neoplasms were verified as being of chromaffin origin by immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase. This model was developed to investigate the effectiveness of linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) in growth inhibition. Anti-tumor effects were reportedly mediated by the antiangiogenic properties of linomide, most prominently expressed through the inhibition of further expansion of tumor capillary bed volume and a consequent reduction in tumor blood flow.

More recently, Powers et al. (2017) used NOD-scid gamma (NSG) mice, which lack B and T-cells and are deficient in functional NK cells, to generate patient-derived xenografts (PDX) from a relatively large series of primary paragangliomas (n = 11) and pheochromocytomas (n = 2). This study aimed to evaluate NSG mice, which reportedly accept a broad range of primary human tumors, as a xenograft recipient, with the ultimate goal of establishing human cell lines by repeated passaging in NSG mice.

Following bilateral subcutaneous injection of dissociated tumor cells into the rear flanks of NSG mice, tumors developed from paraganglioma samples in 3 of the 13 mice (23%), emerging at around 11 months post-injection. Engrafted tumors included both SDHB-mutated and WT tumors, with grossly and microscopically identical bilateral tumors present in each successful case. Cellular identity was confirmed by analysis of morphology and protein markers, which showed maintenance of initial patterns of retained or lost tyrosine hydroxylase, chromogranin A and SDHB comparable to the original tumors. Tumors xenografts in NSG mice were characterized by prominent capillary and fibro-adipose tissue, with a variable presence of the cells comprising tumors, including tumorigenic chief cells and supporting sustentacular cells, arranged in typical ‘cell nests’. One tumor consisted primarily of capillaries, including only very sparse tumor cells. Interestingly, the use of a human-specific anti-CD31 antibody suggested that the majority of tumor blood vessels were derived from human endothelial cells presumably co-injected with dissociated tumor cells, which appeared to have reconstituted their native architecture in the tumor once established in mice. However, it is possible that incompletely digested tumor fragments may have contributed to this impression. It was also unclear whether this vasculature was integrated with surrounding mouse vasculature and was thus functional and able to support tumor vitality and proliferation.

Verginelli et al. also recently described attempts to develop PDX models of paragangliomas (Verginelli et al. 2018), using a total of 90 PGL fragments from 16 patients and reporting an overall take rate of 89% (80/90). Xenografts were investigated 4.5–10 months post-transplantation and found to present as 4–6 mm nodules that infiltrated adjacent murine neurovascular bundles. PDX tissue, including vasculature, was of human origin, as demonstrated by human-specific antibodies and mtDNA analysis. Interestingly, human-derived vasculature was linked to the systemic murine circulation, as demonstrated by permeation with India ink solution after intracardiac perfusion. However, in contrast to the PDXs reported by Powers et al. (2017), the de novo-formed ‘cell nests’ described by Verginelli et al. were negative for accepted neuroendocrine markers such as CGA and SYP, although the authors did report that the cell nests were strongly reminiscent of the ‘neuroepithelial PGL component’, though no standard immunohistochemistry was presented to support this assertion. In terms of gross morphology, the PDXs presented by Verginelli et al. did not appear to be highly vascular, in contrast to those described by Powers et al. and native human tumors. One interesting finding was that the ‘neuroepithelial-like cells’ of the PDXs showed hyperplastic and swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction and often found in chromaffin cells.

The most recent and by far the most successful attempt to generate xenografts has been the use of irradiated Sdhb+/− rat pheochromocytomas as a source of tissue for NSG mouse xenografts. This approach led to the development of the RS0 cell line described above (Powers 2020). The study described two distinct and serially transplantable PC xenograft models that the authors designated as RS0 (Sdhb−/−) and RS1/2 (Sdhb+/−), both of which yielded small but macroscopic pheochromocytomas following irradiation of rats. Histologically, RS0 pheochromocytomas exhibited the pronounced ‘Zellballen’ architecture found in many human tumors, accompanied by slightly clear cells and prominent blood vessels. It is significant that RS0 xenografts showed loss of Sdhb expression, but it remains possible that RS0 tumorigenesis is partly or wholly driven by mechanisms initiated by irradiation of donor animals and that loss of Sdhb is a bystander effect. Further detailed characterization of this potentially important model using complementation with WT Sdhb is therefore crucial.

Recommendations for reporting of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell lines

As must now be apparent from the discussion of currently available cell lines, many cell models have been inadequately characterized and as such represent weak foundations on which to base further research. Many researchers have resorted to the use of standard cell lines such as HEK293, but as we and others have experienced, different cell lines often yield conflicting results. Some findings in these cell lines have nonetheless been confirmed in tumor tissue, demonstrating that even standard cell lines can reveal bona fide tumor characteristics, such as the succinate accumulation or HIF-1 upregulation found in many paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (Selak et al. 2005, MacKenzie et al. 2007). Other options are the cell lines described in this review, which besides problems of characterization are accompanied by problems of reproducibility when researchers are reluctant to share these models, a problem highlighted by the fact that the PC12 cell line is the only model discussed here that is available via an independent cell repository.

We strongly recommend that future models should not be introduced as an adjunct to a research study but should be presented separately and with adequate characterization, so that the model can be accurately appraised by the research community. Even a detailed characterization included in a study with a different focus might lead to an important cell line being overlooked by some researchers, especially those in other fields who might find use for such an important cell line, a scenario supported by the wide adoption of PC12. The growing interest in and importance of metabolism and hypoxia in cancer suggests that a tumor cell line with a deficiency in SDH would be of major interest. We, therefore, provide some suggestions for informative characterization in Table 2 and particularly urge researchers to provide a transparent characterization, so that the pros and cons of a model are readily apparent. We also strongly recommend that existing and future cell lines are made widely available via the ATCC, Coriell, DSMZ, JCRB or similar cell repository (https://web.expasy.org/cellosaurus/ or https://scicrunch.org/resources).

Table 2

Recommendations for reporting of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell lines

Recommended descriptive criteriaSuggested assay
SpeciesSpecies-specific PCR and Sanger sequencing, NGS or karyotype
Unique genotype (compared to existing cell lines)Analysis of short tandem repeats (STR) and comparison to existing (database) cell line profiles
Confirmed pathologic diagnosis of paraganglioma or pheochromocytomaThe original tumor shows expected morphology and is positive for chromogranin A and/or tyrosine hydroxylase and/or synaptophysin and/or neuron-specific enolase proteins
Genomic alterations match the original tumorExome sequencing, high-density genotyping arrays, FISH or karyotype
In an SDHx-derived modelThe cell line should show low or absent SDHB protein expression (SDHA, B, C & D mutated) or SDHA (in case of SDHA mutation)
Establish the identity of proliferating cellsDouble staining for BrdU/Edu together with synaptophysin, chromogranin A and/or tyrosine hydroxylase
Number and rate of population doublingsAccurately describe number and rate of population doubling
To consider cell line immortalAt least 50 population doublings
Cryopreservation of early cell passagesIn order to maintain early passage cultures and prevent phenotype drift
Suggested
 Expression of characteristic gene and/or protein profilesPCR and Sanger sequencing, transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence or immunoblotting
 Expected morphology and cellular features in cultureLight and/or electron microscopy, assessment of catecholamines
Regular monitoring of phenotype (strongly recommended prior to experimentation)
 Confirm expression of:Chromogranin A and/or tyrosine hydroxylase and/or synaptophysin and/or neuron-specific enolase proteins
 No/low expression of SDHB or SDHA proteinSDHB (SDHB, C & D mutated) or SDHA protein expression (SDHA mutation) should be low or absent
 Rate of population doublingAccurately describe current and original rate of population doublings
Strongly recommended: Deposit cell line with ATCC or similar cell repository

Discussion

The title of this review, ‘Advances in…’, could be considered a misnomer, as recent ‘advances’ in paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma cell lines and xenografts have been sparse and of unclear relevance, with certain notable exceptions. While the development of mouse and cell models was originally ‘plan A’, as in any disease-related field of investigation, over the last two decades this task has proved more challenging than expected and has thus effectively been relegated to ‘plan B’ status by many groups. Nevertheless, seasoned figures in the field continue their efforts (Powers et al. 2017, Powers 2020) and others are adapting existing models to new circumstances (Richter et al. 2018, Ullrich et al. 2018), so research using these models continues and in light of hopeful recent developments from the Tischler/Powers lab, the coming years will hopefully see the introduction of new models from both rodent, and more importantly, human tumor sources.

Do we even need a model in a field in which the primary clinical challenge is metastatic SDHB-mutated paraganglioma? Perhaps a strategy of identification of the biological signatures of metastasis and utilization of existing therapeutics developed in other cancers (Calsina et al. 2019) will be sufficient to provide patients with new modalities? While this approach to research may prove fruitful, tumors rarely surrender easily to any one line of attack, so alternatives might be advisable. The downstream causal tumorigenic mechanisms in SDH-related tumors, in particular, have largely resisted elucidation over the last 15 years, suggesting that they may be dependent on novel cancer pathways and therefore require novel therapeutic approaches.

Updated classic approaches, such as oncogene-mediated immortalization coupled to tight control of gene expression, have been insufficiently explored and may represent the only practical way to obtain sufficient tumor cells for experimentation within a reasonable time interval. It is worth recalling that head and neck paragangliomas show an in vivo doubling time of 4 years (Jansen et al. 2000) and patients with malignant tumors display a 5-year overall survival rate of 85% (Hamidi et al. 2017), suggesting that successful culture of even these aggressive tumors may yield rates of proliferation too low to be practicable. Alternative approaches such as patient-derived tumor xenograft models, which are receiving renewed interest, the more recent development of patient-derived tumor organoid models (Bleijs et al. 2019), as well as the still unexplored possibilities of iPSCs combined with CRISPR/Cas as models of chromaffin-derived tumors (Suga 2019) suggest that new avenues may be opening.

We predict that little substantive progress will be made in basic science or in new therapeutics for paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma until a range of better rodent and human SDH-related models become freely available to the wider scientific community. As the field of tumor metabolism broadens these models may find unexpected applications in many other areas, and progress in other disciplines may eventually prove of benefit to paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma research.

Conclusions

We expect that the lack of SDH-specific paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma models, if it persists, will eventually become an insurmountable problem and as such should be given priority by both researchers and funding agencies. It can reasonably be argued that all functional and pre-clinical studies conducted to date are of disputable value at best, as they were inevitably conducted in models with only tenuous claims to relevance to human SDHx tumors. Although widely viewed as ‘challenging’, human SDHx-related paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell culture has been largely neglected (with notable exceptions) and the studies that have taken place have often remained unpublished, frustrating efforts to distinguish useful techniques and procedures from the less successful. The recent development of the RS0 xenograft model/cell line gives reason for optimism but will require further detailed characterization to confirm its relevance to SDHB-related human cancers. As the field of basic paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma research matures and moves from the study of genetics to the study of the molecular mechanisms driving tumorigenesis, the lack of numerous different human and animal models will continue to limit further progress.

Supplementary materials

This is linked to the online version of the paper at https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-19-0434.

Declaration of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of this review.

Funding

This work was made possible by a grant from the Paradifference Foundation.

Author contribution statement

J P B researched and wrote this review. P D co-wrote, revised the paper and provided supervision.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the contributions of Caro Meijer and Heggert Rebel to the maintenance and analysis of paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma cell cultures.

References

  • Abu-Bonsrah KD, Zhang D, Bjorksten AR, Dottori M & Newgreen DF 2018 Generation of adrenal chromaffin-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Reports 10 134150. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.11.003)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Astuti D, Latif F, Dallol A, Dahia PL, Douglas F, George E, Skoldberg F, Husebye ES, Eng C & Maher ER 2001 Gene mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit SDHB cause susceptibility to familial pheochromocytoma and to familial paraganglioma. American Journal of Human Genetics 69 4954. (https://doi.org/10.1086/321282)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baysal BE, Ferrell RE, Willett-Brozick JE, Lawrence EC, Myssiorek D, Bosch A, van der Mey A, Taschner PE, Rubinstein WS & Myers EN et al. 2000 Mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in hereditary paraganglioma. Science 287 848851. (https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5454.848)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birren SJ & Anderson DJ 1990 A v-myc-immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line in which neuronal differentiation is initiated by FGF but not NGF. Neuron 4 189201. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0896-6273(9090094-V)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bleijs M, van de Wetering M, Clevers H & Drost J 2019 Xenograft and organoid model systems in cancer research. EMBO Journal 38 e101654. (https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019101654)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Budach W, Budach V, Stuschke M, Dinges S & Sack H 1993 The TCD50 and regrowth delay assay in human tumor xenografts: differences and implications. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 25 259268. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(9390347-x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Budach W, Budach V, Stuschke M, Schmauder B, Reipke P & Scheulen ME 1994 Efficacy of ifosfamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin and cisplatin in human sarcoma xenografts. British Journal of Cancer 70 2934. (https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1994.245)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cairns LA, Crotta S, Minuzzo M, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P, Pozzi L & Ottolenghi S 1997 Immortalization of neuro-endocrine cells from adrenal tumors arising in SV40 T-transgenic mice. Oncogene 14 30933098. (https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1201137)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caisova V, Li L, Gupta G, Jochmanova I, Jha A, Uher O, Huynh TT, Miettinen M, Pang Y & Abunimer L et al. 2019 The significant reduction or complete eradication of subcutaneous and metastatic lesions in a pheochromocytoma mouse model after immunotherapy using mannan-BAM, TLR ligands, and anti-CD40. Cancers 11 (https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050654)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calsina B, Castro-Vega LJ, Torres-Perez R, Inglada-Perez L, Curras-Freixes M, Roldan-Romero JM, Mancikova V, Leton R, Remacha L & Santos M et al. 2019 Integrative multi-omics analysis identifies a prognostic miRNA signature and a targetable miR-21-3p/TSC2/mTOR axis in metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Theranostics 9 49464958. (https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.35458)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cama A, Verginelli F, Lotti LV, Napolitano F, Morgano A, D’Orazio A, Vacca M, Perconti S, Pepe F & Romani F et al. 2013 Integrative genetic, epigenetic and pathological analysis of paraganglioma reveals complex dysregulation of NOTCH signaling. Acta Neuropathologica 126 575594. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-013-1165-y)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cascon A, Comino-Mendez I, Curras-Freixes M, de Cubas AA, Contreras L, Richter S, Peitzsch M, Mancikova V, Inglada-Perez L & Perez-Barrios A et al. 2015 Whole-exome sequencing identifies MDH2 as a new familial paraganglioma gene. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 107 djv053. (https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv053)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cervera AM, Bayley JP, Devilee P & McCreath KJ 2009 Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase dysregulates histone modification in mammalian cells. Molecular Cancer 8 89. (https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-8-89)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costero I & Chevez AZ 1962 Carotid body tumor in tissue culture. American Journal of Pathology 40 337357.

  • Dahia PL, Ross KN, Wright ME, Hayashida CY, Santagata S, Barontini M, Kung AL, Sanso G, Powers JF & Tischler AS et al. 2005 A HIF1alpha regulatory loop links hypoxia and mitochondrial signals in pheochromocytomas. PLoS Genetics 1 7280. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0010008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D’Antongiovanni V, Martinelli S, Richter S, Canu L, Guasti D, Mello T, Romagnoli P, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G & Mannelli M et al. 2017 The microenvironment induces collective migration in SDHB-silenced mouse pheochromocytoma spheroids. Endocrine-Related Cancer 24 555564. (https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-17-0212).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeLellis RA, Merk FB, Deckers P, Warren S & Balogh K 1973 Ultrastructure and in vitro growth characteristics of a transplantable rat pheochromocytoma. Cancer 32 227235. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(197307)32:1<227::aid-cncr2820320134>3.0.co;2-w)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denorme M, Yon L, Roux C, Gonzalez BJ, Baudin E, Anouar Y & Dubessy C 2014 Both sunitinib and sorafenib are effective treatments for pheochromocytoma in a xenograft model. Cancer Letters 352 236244. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2014.07.005)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Devilee P, van der Mey AG & Cornelisse C 2002 Hereditary paragangliomas of the head and neck. In The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed., pp. 621626. Ed Vogelstein BMcGraw Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douwes Dekker PB, Hogendoorn PC, Kuipers-Dijkshoorn N, Prins FA, van Duinen SG, Taschner PE, Van Der Mey AG & Cornelisse CJ 2003 SDHD mutations in head and neck paragangliomas result in destabilization of complex II in the mitochondrial respiratory chain with loss of enzymatic activity and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Journal of Pathology 201 480486. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1461)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douwes Dekker PB, Corver WE, Hogendoorn PC, Van Der Mey AG & Cornelisse CJ 2004 Multiparameter DNA flow-sorting demonstrates diploidy and SDHD wild-type gene retention in the sustentacular cell compartment of head and neck paragangliomas: chief cells are the only neoplastic component. Journal of Pathology 202 456462. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1535)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton MJ & Duplan H 2004 Useful cell lines derived from the adrenal medulla. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 228 3952. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2003.02.001)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton MJ, Frydel BR, Lopez TL, Nie XT, Huang J, McKillop J & Sagen J 2000 Generation and initial characterization of conditionally immortalized chromaffin cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 79 3857. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4644(2000)79:1<38::AID-JCB50>3.0.CO;2-U)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fankhauser M, Bechmann N, Lauseker M, Goncalves J, Favier J, Klink B, William D, Gieldon L, Maurer J & Spottl G et al. 2019 Synergistic highly potent targeted drug combinations in different pheochromocytoma models including human tumor cultures. Endocrinology 160 26002617. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2019-00410).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishbein L 2019 Pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: is this a genetic disorder? Current Cardiology Reports 21 104. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1184-y).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishbein L, Leshchiner I, Walter V, Danilova L, Robertson AG, Johnson AR, Lichtenberg TM, Murray BA, Ghayee HK & Else T et al. 2017 Comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Cancer Cell 31 181193. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2017.01.001).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Florio R, De Lellis L, di Giacomo V, Di Marcantonio MC, Cristiano L, Basile M, Verginelli F, Verzilli D, Ammazzalorso A & Prasad SC et al. 2017 Effects of PPARalpha inhibition in head and neck paraganglioma cells. PLoS ONE 12 e0178995. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178995).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furuya M, Hasumi H, Baba M, Tanaka R, Iribe Y, Onishi T, Nagashima Y, Nakatani Y, Isono Y & Yao M 2017 Establishment and characterization of BHD-F59RSVT, an immortalized cell line derived from a renal cell carcinoma in a patient with Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. Laboratory Investigation 97 343351. (https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2016.137)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghayee HK, Bhagwandin VJ, Stastny V, Click A, Ding LH, Mizrachi D, Zou YS, Chari R, Lam WL & Bachoo RM et al. 2013 Progenitor cell line (hPheo1) derived from a human pheochromocytoma tumor. PLoS ONE 8 e65624. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065624)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gossen M, Freundlieb S, Bender G, Muller G, Hillen W & Bujard H 1995 Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells. Science 268 17661769. (https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7792603)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greene LA & Tischler AS 1976 Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor. PNAS 73 24242428. (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.73.7.2424)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greim H, Hartwig A, Reuter U, Richter-Reichhelm HB & Thielmann HW 2009 Chemically induced pheochromocytomas in rats: mechanisms and relevance for human risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 39 695718. (https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440903190861)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross DJ, Reibstein I, Weiss L, Slavin S, Stein I, Neeman M, Abramovitch R & Benjamin LE 1999 The antiangiogenic agent linomide inhibits the growth rate of von Hippel-Lindau paraganglioma xenografts to mice. Clinical Cancer Research 5 36693675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gullotta F & Helpap B 1976 Tissue culture, electron microscopic and enzyme histochemical investigations of extraadrenal paragangliomas. Pathologia Europaea 11 257264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall LB, Yoshitomi K & Boorman GA 1987 Pathologic features of abdominal and thoracic paragangliomas in F344/N rats. Veterinary Pathology 24 315322. (https://doi.org/10.1177/030098588702400405)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamidi O, Young Jr WF, Iniguez-Ariza NM, Kittah NE, Gruber L, Bancos C, Tamhane S & Bancos I 2017 Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: 272 patients over 55 years. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 102 32963305. (https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00992)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hensen EF, Jordanova ES, van Minderhout IJ, Hogendoorn PC, Taschner PE, van der Mey AG, Devilee P & Cornelisse CJ 2004 Somatic loss of maternal chromosome 11 causes parent-of-origin-dependent inheritance in SDHD-linked paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma families. Oncogene 23 40764083. (https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207591)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoekstra AS, de Graaff MA, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, Ras C, Seifar RM, van Minderhout I, Cornelisse CJ, Hogendoorn PC, Breuning MH & Suijker J et al. 2015 Inactivation of SDH and FH cause loss of 5hmC and increased H3K9me3 in paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and smooth muscle tumors. Oncotarget 6 3877738788. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6091)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacks T, Shih TS, Schmitt EM, Bronson RT, Bernards A & Weinberg RA 1994 Tumour predisposition in mice heterozygous for a targeted mutation in Nf1. Nature Genetics 7 353361. (https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0794-353)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jansen JC, van den Berg R, Kuiper A, Van Der Mey AG, Zwinderman AH & Cornelisse CJ 2000 Estimation of growth rate in patients with head and neck paragangliomas influences the treatment proposal. Cancer 88 28112816. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2811::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-7)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jha KK, Banga S, Palejwala V & Ozer HL 1998 SV40-mediated immortalization. Experimental Cell Research 245 17. (https://doi.org/10.1006/excr.1998.4272)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katakura Y, Alam S & Shirahata S 1998 Immortalization by gene transfection. Methods in Cell Biology 57 6991. (https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-679x(0861573-3)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kepenekian L, Mognetti T, Lifante JC, Giraudet AL, Houzard C, Pinson S, Borson-Chazot F & Combemale P 2016 Interest of systematic screening of pheochromocytoma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. European Journal of Endocrinology 175 335344. (https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-16-0233)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King TJ & Lampe PD 2004 Mice deficient for the Gap junction protein connexin32 exhibit increased radiation-induced tumorigenesis associated with elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/Erk1, p42/Erk2) activation. Carcinogenesis 25 669680. (https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgh071)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kluckova K, Thakker A, Vettore L, Escribano-Gonzalez C, Hindshaw RL, Tearle JLE, Goncalves J, Kaul B, Lavery GG & Favier J et al. 2020 Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in a chromaffin cell model retains metabolic fitness through the maintenance of mitochondrial NADH oxidoreductase function. FASEB Journal 34 303315. (https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901456R)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korpershoek E, Loonen AJ, Corvers S, van Nederveen FH, Jonkers J, Ma X, Ziel-van der Made A, Korsten H, Trapman J & Dinjens WN et al. 2009 Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma. Journal of Pathology 217 597604. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2492)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lai EW, Rodriguez OC, Aventian M, Cromelin C, Fricke ST, Martiniova L, Lubensky IA, Lisanti MP, Picard KL & Powers JF et al. 2007 ErbB-2 induces bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma formation in mice. Cell Cycle 6 19461950. (https://doi.org/10.4161/cc.6.15.4521)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee S, Nakamura E, Yang H, Wei W, Linggi MS, Sajan MP, Farese RV, Freeman RS, Carter BD & Kaelin Jr WG et al. 2005 Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: developmental culling and cancer. Cancer Cell 8 155167. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2005.06.015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Letouze E, Martinelli C, Loriot C, Burnichon N, Abermil N, Ottolenghi C, Janin M, Menara M, Nguyen AT & Benit P et al. 2013 SDH mutations establish a hypermethylator phenotype in paraganglioma. Cancer Cell 23 739752. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2013.04.018)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Y, Shiraiwa K, Ko KN, Moon J, Park SH, Lee M, Shin S, Kim M, Jang H & Lee Y et al. 2013 A paraganglioma in the posterior wall of the left atrium originating from the aortic body in a Wistar Hannover rat. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 65 631636. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2012.07.002)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loriot C, Domingues M, Berger A, Menara M, Ruel M, Morin A, Castro-Vega LJ, Letouze É, Martinelli C & Bemelmans AP et al. 2015 Deciphering the molecular basis of invasiveness in Sdhb-deficient cells. Oncotarget 6 3295532965. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5106)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lussey-Lepoutre C, Hollinshead KE, Ludwig C, Menara M, Morin A, Castro-Vega LJ, Parker SJ, Janin M, Martinelli C & Ottolenghi C et al. 2015 Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism. Nature Communications 6 8784. (https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9784)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKenzie ED, Selak MA, Tennant DA, Payne LJ, Crosby S, Frederiksen CM, Watson DG & Gottlieb E 2007 Cell-permeating alpha-ketoglutarate derivatives alleviate pseudohypoxia in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology 27 32823289. (https://doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01927-06)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martiniova L, Lai EW, Elkahloun AG, Abu-Asab M, Wickremasinghe A, Solis DC, Perera SM, Huynh TT, Lubensky IA & Tischler AS et al. 2009 Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 26 239250. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10585-009-9236-0)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May T, Wirth D, Hauser H & Mueller PP 2005 Transcriptionally regulated immortalization overcomes side effects of temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 327 734741. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.12.065)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAteer JA & Davis JM 2002 Basic cell culture technique and maintenance of cell lines. In Basic Cell Culture, pp. 135189. Ed Davis JMUSA: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murata T, Hikita K, Tsuboi M, Niwa K, Suzuki M & Kaneda N 2003 Temperature-dependent, neurotrophic factor-elicited, neuronal differentiation in adrenal chromaffin cell line immortalized with temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen. Journal of Neurochemistry 85 11261138. (https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01765.x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neumann HPH, Young Jr WF & Eng C 2019 Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. New England Journal of Medicine 381 552565. (https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1806651)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niemann S & Muller U 2000 Mutations in SDHC cause autosomal dominant paraganglioma, type 3. Nature Genetics 26 268270. (https://doi.org/10.1038/81551)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolting S, Garcia E, Alusi G, Giubellino A, Pacak K, Korbonits M & Grossman AB 2012 Combined blockade of signalling pathways shows marked anti-tumour potential in phaeochromocytoma cell lines. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 49 7996. (https://doi.org/10.1530/JME-12-0028)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolting S, Giubellino A, Tayem Y, Young K, Lauseker M, Bullova P, Schovanek J, Anver M, Fliedner S & Korbonits M et al. 2014 Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice. Endocrinology 155 23772390. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2014-1027)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noonan CA, Brugge JS & Butel JS 1976 Characterization of simian cells tranformed by temperature-sensitive mutants of simian virus 40. Journal of Virology 18 11061119. (https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.18.3.1106-1119.1976)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nurse CA, Buttigieg J, Brown S & Holloway AC 2009 Regulation of oxygen sensitivity in adrenal chromaffin cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1177 132139. (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05031.x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Pang AL, Watanabe M, Yazawa H, Zhang R, Green JE, Chan WY & Sirajuddin P et al. 2008 Metastasis-associated gene expression profile of liver and subcutaneous lesions derived from mouse pheochromocytoma cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 47 245251. (https://doi.org/10.1002/mc.20388)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Kane GM, Ezzat S, Joshua AM, Bourdeau I, Leibowitz-Amit R, Olney HJ, Krzyzanowska M, Reuther D, Chin S & Wang L et al. 2019 A phase 2 trial of sunitinib in patients with progressive paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma: the SNIPP trial. British Journal of Cancer 120 11131119. (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0474-x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papewalis C, Kouatchoua C, Ehlers M, Jacobs B, Porwol D, Schinner S, Willenberg HS, Anlauf M, Raffel A & Eisenhofer G et al. 2011 Chromogranin A as potential target for immunotherapy of malignant pheochromocytoma. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 335 6977. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2010.05.021)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park WJ, Brenner O, Kogot-Levin A, Saada A, Merrill AH Jr, Pewzner-Jung Y & Futerman AH 2015 Development of pheochromocytoma in ceramide synthase 2 null mice. Endocrine-Related Cancer 22 623632. (https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-15-0058)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pellegata NS, Quintanilla-Martinez L, Siggelkow H, Samson E, Bink K, Hofler H, Fend F, Graw J & Atkinson MJ 2006 Germ-line mutations in p27Kip1 cause a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in rats and humans. PNAS 103 1555815563. (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0603877103)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pfragner R, Behmel A, Smith DP, Ponder BA, Wirnsberger G, Rinner I, Porta S, Henn T & Niederle B 1998 First continuous human pheochromocytoma cell line: KNA. Biological, cytogenetic and molecular characterization of KNA cells. Journal of Neurocytology 27 175186. (https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1006959625068)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pirak M, Nyska A, Shahar A, Scolnik M & Waner T 1988 Cytomorphological description of an abdominal extra-adrenal paraganglioma in a Fischer 344 rat. Laboratory Animal Science 38 736738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF & Tischler AS 2020 Immunohistochemical staining for SOX10 and SDHB in SDH-deficient paragangliomas indicates that sustentacular cells are not neoplastic. Endocrine Pathology 31 307309. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12022-020-09633-2)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF, Evinger MJ, Tsokas P, Bedri S, Alroy J, Shahsavari M & Tischler AS 2000 Pheochromocytoma cell lines from heterozygous neurofibromatosis knockout mice. Cell and Tissue Research 302 309320. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s004410000290)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF, Schelling KH, Brachold JM & Tischler AS 2002 Plasticity of pheochromocytoma cell lines from neurofibromatosis knockout mice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 971 371378. (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04499.x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF, Tischler AS, Mohammed M & Naeem R 2005 Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization of pheochromocytoma cell lines from neurofibromatosis knockout mice reveals genetic alterations similar to those in human pheochromocytomas. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 159 2731. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2004.09.018)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF, Evinger MJ, Zhi J, Picard KL & Tischler AS 2007 Pheochromocytomas in Nf1 knockout mice express a neural progenitor gene expression profile. Neuroscience 147 928937. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.05.008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF, Pacak K & Tischler AS 2017 Pathology of human pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma xenografts in NSG mice. Endocrine Pathology 28 26. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12022-016-9452-5)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powers JF, Cochran B, Baleja JD, Sikes HD, Pattison AD, Zhang X, Lomakin I, Shepard-Barry A, Pacak K & Moon SJ et al. 2020 A xenograft and cell line model of SDH-deficient pheochromocytoma derived from Sdhb+/- rats. Endocrine-Related Cancer 27 337354. (https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-19-0474)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pryma DA, Chin BB, Noto RB, Dillon JS, Perkins S, Solnes L, Kostakoglu L, Serafini AN, Pampaloni MH & Jensen J et al. 2019 Efficacy and safety of high-specific-activity (131)I-MIBG therapy in patients with advanced pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 60 623630. (https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.118.217463)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qin Y, Yao L, King EE, Buddavarapu K, Lenci RE, Chocron ES, Lechleiter JD, Sass M, Aronin N & Schiavi F et al. 2010 Germline mutations in TMEM127 confer susceptibility to pheochromocytoma. Nature Genetics 42 229233. (https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.533)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richter S, D’Antongiovanni V, Martinelli S, Bechmann N, Riverso M, Poitz DM, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Mannelli M & Rapizzi E 2018 Primary fibroblast co-culture stimulates growth and metabolism in Sdhb-impaired mouse pheochromocytoma MTT cells. Cell and Tissue Research 374 473485. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-018-2907-x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts DL, O’Dwyer ST, Stern PL & Renehan AG 2015 Global gene expression in pseudomyxoma peritonei, with parallel development of two immortalized cell lines. Oncotarget 6 1078610800. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3198)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rutgers M, Buitenhuis CK, van der Valk MA, Hoefnagel CA, Voute PA & Smets LA 2000 [(131)I] and [(125)I] metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in macroscopic and microscopic tumors: a comparative study in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma and PC12 rat pheochromocytoma xenografts. International Journal of Cancer 90 312325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schovanek J, Bullova P, Tayem Y, Giubellino A, Wesley R, Lendvai N, Nolting S, Kopacek J, Frysak Z & Pommier Y et al. 2015 Inhibitory effect of the Noncamptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitor LMP-400 on female mice models and human pheochromocytoma cells. Endocrinology 156 40944104. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1476)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schulz N, Propst F, Rosenberg MP, Linnoila RI, Paules RS, Kovatch R, Ogiso Y & Vande Woude G 1992 Pheochromocytomas and C-cell thyroid neoplasms in transgenic c-mos mice: a model for the human multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome. Cancer Research 52 450455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selak MA, Armour SM, MacKenzie ED, Boulahbel H, Watson DG, Mansfield KD, Pan Y, Simon MC, Thompson CB & Gottlieb E 2005 Succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis by inhibiting HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylase. Cancer Cell 7 7785. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2004.11.022)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selt F, Hohloch J, Hielscher T, Sahm F, Capper D, Korshunov A, Usta D, Brabetz S, Ridinger J & Ecker J et al. 2017 Establishment and application of a novel patient-derived KIAA1549:BRAF-driven pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma model for preclinical drug testing. Oncotarget 8 1146011479. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14004)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith-Hicks CL, Sizer KC, Powers JF, Tischler AS & Costantini F 2000 C-cell hyperplasia, pheochromocytoma and sympathoadrenal malformation in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. EMBO Journal 19 612622. (https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/19.4.612)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuschke M, Budach V, Klaes W & Sack H 1992 Radiosensitivity, repair capacity, and stem cell fraction in human soft tissue tumors: an in vitro study using multicellular spheroids and the colony assay. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 23 6980. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(9290545-s)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuschke M, Budach V, Stuben G, Streffer C & Sack H 1995 Heterogeneity in the fractionation sensitivities of human tumor cell lines: studies in a three-dimensional model system. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 32 395408. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(9500528-7)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suga H 2019 Application of pluripotent stem cells for treatment of human neuroendocrine disorders. Cell and Tissue Research 375 267278. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-018-2880-4)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suri C, Fung BP, Tischler AS & Chikaraishi DM 1993 Catecholaminergic cell lines from the brain and adrenal glands of tyrosine hydroxylase-SV40 T antigen transgenic mice. Journal of Neuroscience 13 12801291. (https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.13-03-01280.1993)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tischler AS, Lee AK, Nunnemacher G, Said SI, DeLellis RA, Morse GM & Wolfe HJ 1981 Spontaneous neurite outgrowth and vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity of cultures of human paraganglioma cells from the glomus jugulare. Cell and Tissue Research 219 543555. (https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00209993)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tischler AS, Shih TS, Williams BO & Jacks T 1995 Characterization of pheochromocytomas in a mouse strain with a targeted disruptive mutation of the neurofibromatosis gene Nf1. Endocrine Pathology 6 323335. (https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02738732)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tonks ID, Mould AW, Schroder WA, Cotterill A, Hayward NK, Walker GJ & Kay GF 2010 Dual loss of rb1 and Trp53 in the adrenal medulla leads to spontaneous pheochromocytoma. Neoplasia 12 235243. (https://doi.org/10.1593/neo.91646)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ullrich M, Liers J, Peitzsch M, Feldmann A, Bergmann R, Sommer U, Richter S, Bornstein SR, Bachmann M & Eisenhofer G et al. 2018 Strain-specific metastatic phenotypes in pheochromocytoma allograft mice. Endocrine-Related Cancer 25 9931004. (https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-18-0136)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Urosevic J, Sauzeau V, Soto-Montenegro ML, Reig S, Desco M, Wright EM, Canamero M, Mulero F, Ortega S & Bustelo XR et al. 2011 Constitutive activation of B-Raf in the mouse germ line provides a model for human cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. PNAS 108 50155020. (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1016933108)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Nederveen FH, Gaal J, Favier J, Korpershoek E, Oldenburg RA, de Bruyn EM, Sleddens HF, Derkx P, Riviere J & Dannenberg H et al. 2009 An immunohistochemical procedure to detect patients with paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma with germline SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD gene mutations: a retrospective and prospective analysis. Lancet: Oncology 10 764771. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(0970164-0)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Zwieten MJ, Burek JD, Zurcher C & Hollander CF 1979 Aortic body tumours and hyperplasia in the rat. Journal of Pathology 128 99112. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1711280208)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venihaki M, Ain K, Dermitzaki E, Gravanis A & Margioris AN 1998 KAT45, a noradrenergic human pheochromocytoma cell line producing corticotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 139 713722. (https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.139.2.5724)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verginelli F, Perconti S, Vespa S, Schiavi F, Prasad SC, Lanuti P, Cama A, Tramontana L, Esposito DL & Guarnieri S et al. 2018 Paragangliomas arise through an autonomous vasculo-angio-neurogenic program inhibited by imatinib. Acta Neuropathologica 135 779798. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-017-1799-2)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker DW, Hajek P, Muffat J, Knoepfle D, Cornelison S, Attardi G & Benzer S 2006 Hypersensitivity to oxygen and shortened lifespan in a Drosophila mitochondrial complex II mutant. PNAS 103 1638216387. (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0607918103)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warren S & Chute RN 1972 Pheochromocytoma. Cancer 29 327331. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(197202)29:2<327::AID-CNCR2820290210>3.0.CO;2-3)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood MA, Paralkar M, Paralkar MP, Nguyen A, Struck AJ, Ellrott K, Margolin A, Nellore A & Thompson RF 2018 Population-level distribution and putative immunogenicity of cancer neoepitopes. BMC Cancer 18 414. (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4325-6)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zielke A, Bresalier RS, Siperstein AE, Clark OH, Rothmund M & Duh QY 1998 A unique allogenic model of metastatic pheochromocytoma: PC12 rat pheochromocytoma xenografts to nude mice and establishment of metastases-derived PC12 variants. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 16 341352. (https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1006565530421)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

Society for Endocrinology

Sept 2018 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1125 1125 46
PDF Downloads 427 427 46
  • View in gallery

    (A) Rat PC12 cells in culture (hematoxylin, 200x) show a characteristic primitive or partially differentiated chromaffin morphology, mainly evident in the high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio, the compact appearance of the cells and the frequent appearance of short neurites when adherent to plastic. (B) PC12 cells (200x) show strong expression of the synaptophysin protein (anti-synaptophysin antibody, LEICA NCL-L-SYNAP-299). (C) Synaptophysin protein expression in primary chromaffin cells of a pheochromocytoma (4-week culture, 400x) or (D) a carotid body tumor (16-month culture, 400x) is broadly similar to PC12 cells. Chromaffin cells in short-term primary cultures also frequently display more differentiated characteristics (C, inset, 200x).

  • Abu-Bonsrah KD, Zhang D, Bjorksten AR, Dottori M & Newgreen DF 2018 Generation of adrenal chromaffin-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Reports 10 134150. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.11.003)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Astuti D, Latif F, Dallol A, Dahia PL, Douglas F, George E, Skoldberg F, Husebye ES, Eng C & Maher ER 2001 Gene mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit SDHB cause susceptibility to familial pheochromocytoma and to familial paraganglioma. American Journal of Human Genetics 69 4954. (https://doi.org/10.1086/321282)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baysal BE, Ferrell RE, Willett-Brozick JE, Lawrence EC, Myssiorek D, Bosch A, van der Mey A, Taschner PE, Rubinstein WS & Myers EN et al. 2000 Mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in hereditary paraganglioma. Science 287 848851. (https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5454.848)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birren SJ & Anderson DJ 1990 A v-myc-immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line in which neuronal differentiation is initiated by FGF but not NGF. Neuron 4 189201. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0896-6273(9090094-V)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bleijs M, van de Wetering M, Clevers H & Drost J 2019 Xenograft and organoid model systems in cancer research. EMBO Journal 38 e101654. (https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019101654)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Budach W, Budach V, Stuschke M, Dinges S & Sack H 1993 The TCD50 and regrowth delay assay in human tumor xenografts: differences and implications. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 25 259268. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(9390347-x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Budach W, Budach V, Stuschke M, Schmauder B, Reipke P & Scheulen ME 1994 Efficacy of ifosfamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin and cisplatin in human sarcoma xenografts. British Journal of Cancer 70 2934. (https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1994.245)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cairns LA, Crotta S, Minuzzo M, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P, Pozzi L & Ottolenghi S 1997 Immortalization of neuro-endocrine cells from adrenal tumors arising in SV40 T-transgenic mice. Oncogene 14 30933098. (https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1201137)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caisova V, Li L, Gupta G, Jochmanova I, Jha A, Uher O, Huynh TT, Miettinen M, Pang Y & Abunimer L et al. 2019 The significant reduction or complete eradication of subcutaneous and metastatic lesions in a pheochromocytoma mouse model after immunotherapy using mannan-BAM, TLR ligands, and anti-CD40. Cancers 11 (https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050654)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calsina B, Castro-Vega LJ, Torres-Perez R, Inglada-Perez L, Curras-Freixes M, Roldan-Romero JM, Mancikova V, Leton R, Remacha L & Santos M et al. 2019 Integrative multi-omics analysis identifies a prognostic miRNA signature and a targetable miR-21-3p/TSC2/mTOR axis in metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Theranostics 9 49464958. (https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.35458)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cama A, Verginelli F, Lotti LV, Napolitano F, Morgano A, D’Orazio A, Vacca M, Perconti S, Pepe F & Romani F et al. 2013 Integrative genetic, epigenetic and pathological analysis of paraganglioma reveals complex dysregulation of NOTCH signaling. Acta Neuropathologica 126 575594. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-013-1165-y)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cascon A, Comino-Mendez I, Curras-Freixes M, de Cubas AA, Contreras L, Richter S, Peitzsch M, Mancikova V, Inglada-Perez L & Perez-Barrios A et al. 2015 Whole-exome sequencing identifies MDH2 as a new familial paraganglioma gene. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 107 djv053. (https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv053)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cervera AM, Bayley JP, Devilee P & McCreath KJ 2009 Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase dysregulates histone modification in mammalian cells. Molecular Cancer 8 89. (https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-8-89)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costero I & Chevez AZ 1962 Carotid body tumor in tissue culture. American Journal of Pathology 40 337357.

  • Dahia PL, Ross KN, Wright ME, Hayashida CY, Santagata S, Barontini M, Kung AL, Sanso G, Powers JF & Tischler AS et al. 2005 A HIF1alpha regulatory loop links hypoxia and mitochondrial signals in pheochromocytomas. PLoS Genetics 1 7280. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0010008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D’Antongiovanni V, Martinelli S, Richter S, Canu L, Guasti D, Mello T, Romagnoli P, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G & Mannelli M et al. 2017 The microenvironment induces collective migration in SDHB-silenced mouse pheochromocytoma spheroids. Endocrine-Related Cancer 24 555564. (https://doi.org/10.1530/ERC-17-0212).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeLellis RA, Merk FB, Deckers P, Warren S & Balogh K 1973 Ultrastructure and in vitro growth characteristics of a transplantable rat pheochromocytoma. Cancer 32 227235. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(197307)32:1<227::aid-cncr2820320134>3.0.co;2-w)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denorme M, Yon L, Roux C, Gonzalez BJ, Baudin E, Anouar Y & Dubessy C 2014 Both sunitinib and sorafenib are effective treatments for pheochromocytoma in a xenograft model. Cancer Letters 352 236244. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2014.07.005)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Devilee P, van der Mey AG & Cornelisse C 2002 Hereditary paragangliomas of the head and neck. In The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed., pp. 621626. Ed Vogelstein BMcGraw Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douwes Dekker PB, Hogendoorn PC, Kuipers-Dijkshoorn N, Prins FA, van Duinen SG, Taschner PE, Van Der Mey AG & Cornelisse CJ 2003 SDHD mutations in head and neck paragangliomas result in destabilization of complex II in the mitochondrial respiratory chain with loss of enzymatic activity and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Journal of Pathology 201 480486. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1461)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douwes Dekker PB, Corver WE, Hogendoorn PC, Van Der Mey AG & Cornelisse CJ 2004 Multiparameter DNA flow-sorting demonstrates diploidy and SDHD wild-type gene retention in the sustentacular cell compartment of head and neck paragangliomas: chief cells are the only neoplastic component. Journal of Pathology 202 456462. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1535)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton MJ & Duplan H 2004 Useful cell lines derived from the adrenal medulla. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 228 3952. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2003.02.001)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton MJ, Frydel BR, Lopez TL, Nie XT, Huang J, McKillop J & Sagen J 2000 Generation and initial characterization of conditionally immortalized chromaffin cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 79 3857. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4644(2000)79:1<38::AID-JCB50>3.0.CO;2-U)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fankhauser M, Bechmann N, Lauseker M, Goncalves J, Favier J, Klink B, William D, Gieldon L, Maurer J & Spottl G et al. 2019 Synergistic highly potent targeted drug combinations in different pheochromocytoma models including human tumor cultures. Endocrinology 160 26002617. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2019-00410).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishbein L 2019 Pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: is this a genetic disorder? Current Cardiology Reports 21 104. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1184-y).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishbein L, Leshchiner I, Walter V, Danilova L, Robertson AG, Johnson AR, Lichtenberg TM, Murray BA, Ghayee HK & Else T et al. 2017 Comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Cancer Cell 31 181193. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2017.01.001).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Florio R, De Lellis L, di Giacomo V, Di Marcantonio MC, Cristiano L, Basile M, Verginelli F, Verzilli D, Ammazzalorso A & Prasad SC et al. 2017 Effects of PPARalpha inhibition in head and neck paraganglioma cells. PLoS ONE 12 e0178995. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178995).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furuya M, Hasumi H, Baba M, Tanaka R, Iribe Y, Onishi T, Nagashima Y, Nakatani Y, Isono Y & Yao M 2017 Establishment and characterization of BHD-F59RSVT, an immortalized cell line derived from a renal cell carcinoma in a patient with Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. Laboratory Investigation 97 343351. (https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2016.137)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghayee HK, Bhagwandin VJ, Stastny V, Click A, Ding LH, Mizrachi D, Zou YS, Chari R, Lam WL & Bachoo RM et al. 2013 Progenitor cell line (hPheo1) derived from a human pheochromocytoma tumor. PLoS ONE 8 e65624. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065624)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gossen M, Freundlieb S, Bender G, Muller G, Hillen W & Bujard H 1995 Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells. Science 268 17661769. (https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7792603)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greene LA & Tischler AS 1976 Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor. PNAS 73 24242428. (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.73.7.2424)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greim H, Hartwig A, Reuter U, Richter-Reichhelm HB & Thielmann HW 2009 Chemically induced pheochromocytomas in rats: mechanisms and relevance for human risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 39 695718. (https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440903190861)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross DJ, Reibstein I, Weiss L, Slavin S, Stein I, Neeman M, Abramovitch R & Benjamin LE 1999 The antiangiogenic agent linomide inhibits the growth rate of von Hippel-Lindau paraganglioma xenografts to mice. Clinical Cancer Research 5 36693675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gullotta F & Helpap B 1976 Tissue culture, electron microscopic and enzyme histochemical investigations of extraadrenal paragangliomas. Pathologia Europaea 11 257264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall LB, Yoshitomi K & Boorman GA 1987 Pathologic features of abdominal and thoracic paragangliomas in F344/N rats. Veterinary Pathology 24 315322. (https://doi.org/10.1177/030098588702400405)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamidi O, Young Jr WF, Iniguez-Ariza NM, Kittah NE, Gruber L, Bancos C, Tamhane S & Bancos I 2017 Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: 272 patients over 55 years. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 102 32963305. (https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00992)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hensen EF, Jordanova ES, van Minderhout IJ, Hogendoorn PC, Taschner PE, van der Mey AG, Devilee P & Cornelisse CJ 2004 Somatic loss of maternal chromosome 11 causes parent-of-origin-dependent inheritance in SDHD-linked paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma families. Oncogene 23 40764083. (https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207591)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoekstra AS, de Graaff MA, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, Ras C, Seifar RM, van Minderhout I, Cornelisse CJ, Hogendoorn PC, Breuning MH & Suijker J et al. 2015 Inactivation of SDH and FH cause loss of 5hmC and increased H3K9me3 in paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and smooth muscle tumors. Oncotarget 6 3877738788. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6091)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacks T, Shih TS, Schmitt EM, Bronson RT, Bernards A & Weinberg RA 1994 Tumour predisposition in mice heterozygous for a targeted mutation in Nf1. Nature Genetics 7 353361. (https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0794-353)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jansen JC, van den Berg R, Kuiper A, Van Der Mey AG, Zwinderman AH & Cornelisse CJ 2000 Estimation of growth rate in patients with head and neck paragangliomas influences the treatment proposal. Cancer 88 28112816. (https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2811::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-7)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jha KK, Banga S, Palejwala V & Ozer HL 1998 SV40-mediated immortalization. Experimental Cell Research 245 17. (https://doi.org/10.1006/excr.1998.4272)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katakura Y, Alam S & Shirahata S 1998 Immortalization by gene transfection. Methods in Cell Biology 57 6991. (https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-679x(0861573-3)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kepenekian L, Mognetti T, Lifante JC, Giraudet AL, Houzard C, Pinson S, Borson-Chazot F & Combemale P 2016 Interest of systematic screening of pheochromocytoma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. European Journal of Endocrinology 175 335344. (https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-16-0233)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King TJ & Lampe PD 2004 Mice deficient for the Gap junction protein connexin32 exhibit increased radiation-induced tumorigenesis associated with elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/Erk1, p42/Erk2) activation. Carcinogenesis 25 669680. (https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgh071)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kluckova K, Thakker A, Vettore L, Escribano-Gonzalez C, Hindshaw RL, Tearle JLE, Goncalves J, Kaul B, Lavery GG & Favier J et al. 2020 Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in a chromaffin cell model retains metabolic fitness through the maintenance of mitochondrial NADH oxidoreductase function. FASEB Journal 34 303315. (https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901456R)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korpershoek E, Loonen AJ, Corvers S, van Nederveen FH, Jonkers J, Ma X, Ziel-van der Made A, Korsten H, Trapman J & Dinjens WN et al. 2009 Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma. Journal of Pathology 217 597604. (https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2492)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lai EW, Rodriguez OC, Aventian M, Cromelin C, Fricke ST, Martiniova L, Lubensky IA, Lisanti MP, Picard KL & Powers JF et al. 2007 ErbB-2 induces bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma formation in mice. Cell Cycle 6 19461950. (https://doi.org/10.4161/cc.6.15.4521)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee S, Nakamura E, Yang H, Wei W, Linggi MS, Sajan MP, Farese RV, Freeman RS, Carter BD & Kaelin Jr WG et al. 2005 Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: developmental culling and cancer. Cancer Cell 8 155167. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2005.06.015)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Letouze E, Martinelli C, Loriot C, Burnichon N, Abermil N, Ottolenghi C, Janin M, Menara M, Nguyen AT & Benit P et al. 2013 SDH mutations establish a hypermethylator phenotype in paraganglioma. Cancer Cell 23 739752. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2013.04.018)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Y, Shiraiwa K, Ko KN, Moon J, Park SH, Lee M, Shin S, Kim M, Jang H & Lee Y et al. 2013 A paraganglioma in the posterior wall of the left atrium originating from the aortic body in a Wistar Hannover rat. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 65 631636. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2012.07.002)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loriot C, Domingues M, Berger A, Menara M, Ruel M, Morin A, Castro-Vega LJ, Letouze É, Martinelli C & Bemelmans AP et al. 2015 Deciphering the molecular basis of invasiveness in Sdhb-deficient cells. Oncotarget 6 3295532965. (https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5106)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lussey-Lepoutre C, Hollinshead KE, Ludwig C, Menara M, Morin A, Castro-Vega LJ, Parker SJ, Janin M, Martinelli C & Ottolenghi C et al. 2015 Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism. Nature Communications 6 8784. (https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9784)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKenzie ED, Selak MA, Tennant DA, Payne LJ, Crosby S, Frederiksen CM, Watson DG & Gottlieb E 2007 Cell-permeating alpha-ketoglutarate derivatives alleviate pseudohypoxia in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology 27 32823289. (https://doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01927-06)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martiniova L, Lai EW, Elkahloun AG, Abu-Asab M, Wickremasinghe A, Solis DC, Perera SM, Huynh TT, Lubensky IA & Tischler AS et al. 2009 Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 26 239250. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10585-009-9236-0)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May T, Wirth D, Hauser H & Mueller PP 2005 Transcriptionally regulated immortalization overcomes side effects of temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 327 734741. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.12.065)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAteer JA & Davis JM 2002 Basic cell culture technique and maintenance of cell lines. In Basic Cell Culture, pp. 135189. Ed Davis JMUSA: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murata T, Hikita K, Tsuboi M, Niwa K, Suzuki M & Kaneda N 2003 Temperature-dependent, neurotrophic factor-elicited, neuronal differentiation in adrenal chromaffin cell line immortalized with temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen. Journal of Neurochemistry 85 11261138. (https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01765.x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neumann HPH, Young Jr WF & Eng C 2019 Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. New England Journal of Medicine 381 552565. (https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1806651)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niemann S & Muller U 2000 Mutations in SDHC cause autosomal dominant paraganglioma, type 3. Nature Genetics 26 268270. (https://doi.org/10.1038/81551)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolting S, Garcia E, Alusi G, Giubellino A, Pacak K, Korbonits M & Grossman AB 2012 Combined blockade of signalling pathways shows marked anti-tumour potential in phaeochromocytoma cell lines. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 49 7996. (https://doi.org/10.1530/JME-12-0028)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolting S, Giubellino A, Tayem Y, Young K, Lauseker M, Bullova P, Schovanek J, Anver M, Fliedner S & Korbonits M et al. 2014 Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice. Endocrinology 155 23772390. (https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2014-1027)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noonan CA, Brugge JS & Butel JS 1976 Characterization of simian cells tranformed by temperature-sensitive mutants of simian virus 40. Journal of Virology 18 11061119. (https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.18.3.1106-1119.1976)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nurse CA, Buttigieg J, Brown S & Holloway AC 2009 Regulation of oxygen sensitivity in adrenal chromaffin cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1177 132139. (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05031.x)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Pang AL, Watanabe M, Yazawa H, Zhang R, Green JE, Chan WY & Sirajuddin P et al. 2008 Metastasis-associated gene expression profile of liver and subcutaneous lesions derived from mouse pheochromocytoma cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 47 245251. (https://doi.org/10.1002/mc.20388)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Kane GM, Ezzat S, Joshua AM, Bourdeau I,